Jurisdynamics Network authors on SSRN

This page summarizes the most recent SSRN abstracts posted by the authors of the Jurisdynamics Network. The Network's authors are serious, productive scholars as well as stimulating bloggers, and we hope you will read and download these papers. This page has its own RSS feed, which you are invited to download by clicking here:  . To receive updates as these authors post new scholarship, please use the following form:

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%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Continuity and Transformation in Environmental Governance, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3338988 (March 13, 2019)

Almost since the modern era of environmental regulation began in the 1970s, there have been arguments for replacing it with something else. Surely, critics argued, it was possible to improve on a rigid hierarchy from the issuance of federal uniform standards to state implementation to firm compliance. Conventional regulation, it has been said, is too clumsy, too slow, too inefficient. The critics offered various replacements for federal “command and control” regulation, including use of alternative regulatory tools such as emissions trading or collaborative governance and a massive shift of regulatory authority to the states. There have been significant incremental changes, but little in the way of transformation – except in the arena of climate change. States, cities, and private firms have all undertaken aggressive climate change initiatives. This paper argues that the complex national and international networks and interactions involving these efforts are best understood as ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: TRIPS Wars: Developing Countries Strike Back, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2671664 (March 12, 2019)

This chapter focuses on the "TRIPS Wars," which involved the developed countries' repeated strikes on the sovereignty, autonomy and policy space of developing countries. These strikes began with the establishment of the TRIPS Agreement, which was then followed by the increasing efforts to negotiate TRIPS-plus trade and intellectual property agreements.

Notwithstanding these repeated strikes, developing countries have been learning fast. After a decade of mobilization and adjustments, they have now slowly acquired the ability to launch counter-strikes. These counter-strikes are important because they may provide the flashpoints for future tensions and conflicts in the international intellectual property regime.

This chapter begins by discussing the impact of the TRIPS Agreement and TRIPS-plus trade and intellectual property agreements on developing countries. It then examines the developing countries' counter-strikes at the WTO — including those at the Doha Round ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Financial Impact of the Opioid Crisis on Local Government: Quantifying Costs for Litigation and Policymaking, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3325401 (March 9, 2019)

The opioids epidemic has had a significant impact on individuals and communities, including local governments responsible for serving and protecting those affected individuals. This is the first study of its kind to consider whether those local government costs are quantifiable, a question that has salience both for pending opioid litigation in federal and state courts and for local planning and budgeting decisions. This article first provides a detailed description of the opioid litigation landscape, including the federal multidistrict litigation (MDL) in Ohio, the Native American tribes’ actions, and various procedural and other hurdles that local government plaintiffs face in seeking monetary recovery in court. The article also provides a literature review of existing studies on the financial impacts of the opioid epidemic, noting the shortcomings of those studies in regards to quantifying costs for local governments. Finally, it describes our study methodology, which involved ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Healthism in Tort Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3348441 (March 8, 2019)

This article draws on the author's recently published book, Healthism: Health Status Discrimination and the Law (with Jessica L. Roberts) (Cambridge University Press 2018), examining tort law doctrine and policy for examples of differential treatment of health status or behaviors. Just as scholars previously have drawn attention to discrimination based on race, sex, age, and other protected categories in tort law, the article urges similar examination of tort law's potential to discriminate against the unhealthy. The article discusses the potential for healthism in the reasonably prudent person standard of care, contributory negligence, assumption of the risk, noneconomic damages caps, impaired driver and physician cases, failure to mitigate, intentional infliction of emotional distress, and other tort law rules. It concludes by applying the book's decisional rubric for distinguishing between permissible and impermissible health status differentiation to specific examples from ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: From Surviving to Thriving: Equity in Disaster Planning and Recovery, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3340133 (March 5, 2019)

The natural disasters of 2017-19 have exposed weaknesses in our preparation for disaster and climate change. What if we had paid attention — before disaster ensued — to how environmental protection and planning can prevent and minimize the harm that disasters cause to people, their housing, and the infrastructure of our cities, states, and territories? Steps to inform the public about risks, to adopt protective measures, and to enforce health, safety and environmental standards could have minimized the human suffering and loss and minimized the economic costs associated with recovery. This paper explores how such changes in various federal and state laws could make us more resilient.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Regulatory Review in Anti-Regulatory Times, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3302206 (February 22, 2019)

This Article investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in an antiregulatory regime. The first two years of the Trump Administration have seen the first vigorous use by Congress of its power to overturn recently issued regulations and the creation of novel deregulatory mechanisms layered on top of cost-benefit analysis. There have also been dramatic examples of sharply reversed CBAs, in which regulations that were said to have large net benefits under Obama are instead said to have net costs under Trump. The Trump Administration’s regulatory review initiatives focus heavily on costs, with limited attention to benefits. Case studies of three regulations show that the economic analysis of one is seriously defective, another admits to having severe limitations, and a third seems makes a concerted effort to reduce the weight of benefits. Some of these characteristics may be analytically defensible, others seemingly are not. It is even harder to connect Congress’s recent uses of the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: United States Constitutional Law: Chapter 1 (Introduction), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3326238 (February 20, 2019)

United States Constitutional Law (Found. Press 2019) guides law students, political science students, and engaged citizens through the complexities of U.S. Supreme Court doctrine and its relationship to constitutional politics — in key areas ranging from federalism and presidential power to equal protection and substantive due process. Rather than approach constitutional law as a static structure or imagine the Supreme Court as acting in isolation from society, the book elucidates key constitutional doctrines while also drawing on scholarship in law and political science that connects doctrine to large social changes such as industrialization, social movements such as civil rights and second-wave feminism, and institutional tensions between governmental actors.

Combining legal analysis with historical narrative and sensitivity to political context, the book provides deeper understanding of how constitutional law arises, functions, and changes in a complex, often-divided ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: China, 'Belt and Road' and Intellectual Property Cooperation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3332346 (February 20, 2019)

In fall 2013, China launched the "One Belt, One Road" Initiative, covering over 60 percent of the world's population and about a third of global GDP. Now translated officially as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), this new development features two distinct routes: the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and the sea-based 21st-century Maritime Silk Road.

Although burgeoning literature has emerged to analyze the BRI's benefits, drawbacks and ramifications, few scholars have explored the initiative's potential impact on international and regional intellectual property systems. Commissioned for a special issue on the BRI, this article aims to fill this void by examining the emerging role China and its BRI will play in the intellectual property area.

This article begins by exploring China's growing assertiveness in the international arena. It then explores six areas in which the BRI can play constructive roles in facilitating international and regional cooperation on ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Models for Predicting Business Bankruptcies and Their Application to Banking and to Financial Regulation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3329147 (February 14, 2019)

Models for predicting business bankruptcies have evolved rapidly. Machine learning is displacing traditional statistical methodologies. Three distinct techniques for approaching the classification problem in bankruptcy prediction have emerged: single classification, hybrid classification, and classifier ensembles. Methodological heterogeneity through the introduction and integration of machine-learning algorithms (especially support vector machines, decision trees, and genetic algorithms) has improved the accuracy of bankruptcy prediction models. Greater accuracy promotes external processes of banks by minimizing credit risk and by facilitating regulatory compliance.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: China, "Belt and Road" and Intellectual Property Cooperation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3332346 (February 11, 2019)

In fall 2013, China launched the "One Belt, One Road" Initiative. Now translated as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), this new development features two distinct routes: the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and the sea-based 21st-century Maritime Silk Road. Although burgeoning literature has emerged to analyze the BRI's benefits, drawbacks and ramifications, few scholars have explored the initiative's emerging impact on international and regional intellectual property systems.

Aiming to fill this void, the present article begins by exploring China's growing assertiveness in the international arena. The article then explores six areas in which the BRI can play constructive roles in facilitating international and regional cooperation on intellectual property matters. Recognizing that this initiative has generated many concerns and complications, this article concludes by addressing three oft-raised questions relating to the initiative.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Exclusivities in the Age of Big Data, Biologics, and Plurilaterals, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3133810 (February 8, 2019)

The past decade has seen many new developments impacting the intellectual property system. The introduction of big data analytics has transformed the fields of biotechnology and bioinformatics while ushering in major advances in drug development, clinical practices and medical financing. The arrival of biologics and personalized medicines has also revolutionized the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, the emergence of bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade agreements have raised serious, and at times difficult, questions concerning the evolution of domestic and international intellectual property standards.

One topic linking all three developments together concerns the establishment of international standards to protect clinical trial data that have been submitted to regulatory authorities for the marketing approval of pharmaceutical products. During the TPP negotiations, for example, the protection of clinical trial data submitted for the marketing ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: TPP, RCEP, and the Crossvergence of Asian Intellectual Property Standards, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3032941 (February 8, 2019)

The debate on convergence and divergence has garnered considerable attention from policymakers and commentators involved in regulatory developments in Asia. The developments surrounding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) have added fuel to this debate. Given the different leadership in these two megaregional agreements and the exclusion of many RCEP parties from the TPP negotiations, it will be interesting to see how the agreements will affect the future efforts to set regional intellectual property standards. It will also be curious to see whether the draft and finalized standards could reveal policy preferences of the participating countries.

In January 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed a memorandum directing the United States to withdraw from the TPP, putting the megaregional pact on life support. A year later, however, the eleven remaining TPP partners signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Beyond Instrumentalism: A Substantivist Perspective on Law, Technology, and the Digital Persona, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3327607 (February 4, 2019)

Law and technology matters have traditionally been researched in discrete categories such as intellectual property (e.g., copyright, patent, or trademark) or intermediary liability and responsibility (e.g., secondary liability and telecommunications regulation). In the last two decades, however, academics have studied the broader interaction between law and technology across legal fields. This Article examines progress to date and discusses two distinct perspectives on law and technology.

The dominant approach has been an instrumentalist one that treats technology as a tool for individuals to use while downplaying its broader social implications. However, the fields of philosophy of technology, science and technology studies, and social studies of science are now mature enough to support a rival approach grounded in a deep understanding of the nature—rather than the results—of technological change. This substantivist approach suggests analytical principles to refine and ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: A Rule of Persons, Not Machines: The Limits of Legal Automation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3135549 (February 3, 2019)

For many legal futurists, attorneys’ work is a prime target for automation. They view the legal practice of most businesses as algorithmic: data (such as facts) are transformed into outputs (agreements or litigation stances) via application of set rules (the law). These technophiles promote substituting computer code for contracts and descriptions of facts now written by humans. They point to early successes in legal automation as proof of concept. For example, TurboTax has helped millions of Americans file taxes, and algorithms have taken over certain aspects of stock trading. Corporate efforts to “formalize legal code” may bring new efficiencies in areas of practice characterized by both legal and factual clarity.

Legal automation, however, can also elide or exclude important human values, necessary improvisations, and irreducibly deliberative governance. Due process depends on narratively intelligible communication from persons and for persons that are not reducible to ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Tax Wars: The Battle over Taxing Global Digital Commerce, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3309920 (January 28, 2019)

This Article discusses the emergence of an international tax “war” and provides an overview of global digital taxation reform efforts. Governments have been unable to attain consensus surrounding how to tax cross-border digital transactions. As a result, dozens of governments are now pursuing uncoordinated reforms -- including digital services taxes, economic presence tests, withholding taxes and equalization levies -- that will encourage international double taxation and inhibit cross-border trade and investment. The global digital tax conflict masks a growing dissatisfaction with how to tax value associated with global transactions. Until this larger problem is unresolved, the war may continue unabated.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Building Intellectual Property Infrastructure Along China's Belt and Road, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3276066 (January 15, 2019)

In the past decade, China has played pivotal roles in developing initiatives such as the BRICS Summit, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the New Development Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. China has also negotiated a number of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, connecting the country to markets in Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America and other parts of the world. Many of these agreements include provisions or chapters on intellectual property protection and enforcement.

One new initiative that has not received much scholarly and policy attention from intellectual property commentators concerns the slowly emerging "One Belt, One Road" Initiative, which has now been officially translated as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Launched in fall 2013, this initiative aims to promote global and regional connectivity through two distinct routes: the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and the sea-based 21st-century Maritime Silk ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Rise of China in the International Intellectual Property Regime, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3224443 (January 10, 2019)

The rise of China in the international arena has caught the attention of many – whether they are excited about the country's ascendancy or worried about its territorial ambitions. Voluminous literature now exists to cover the impact of China's rise on the international geopolitical and economic systems. One area that has not garnered much attention thus far is the impact of China's rise on the international intellectual property regime.

To examine this impact, the present chapter begins by revisiting the typology scholars have used to chart the progress a country has made in its engagement with international norms: (1) norm breaker; (2) norm taker; (3) norm shaker; and (4) norm maker. Although China has been widely considered a norm breaker or a norm taker in the intellectual property arena, it has now slowly taken on the roles of both a norm shaker and a norm maker.

This chapter then examines three notable developments that have enabled China to shape future ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Exclusivities and the Limits to TRIPS Harmonization, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3296236 (January 10, 2019)

2019 marks the silver anniversary of the WTO TRIPS Agreement. Policymakers and commentators remain deeply divided about the strengths and limitations of this agreement. On the one hand, they marvel at its success in establishing international minimum standards for the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. On the other hand, they widely criticize the agreement for imposing high "one size fits all" standards upon developing countries.

Regardless of one's perspective, the harmonization project advanced by the TRIPS Agreement, and continued through TRIPS-plus bilateral, regional and plurilateral agreements, has been at the forefront of the international intellectual property debate. While this article is interested in exploring this continuously controversial project, the discussion will focus on a topic that international intellectual property scholars have underexplored: the limits to TRIPS harmonization.

To help examine these limits, this article ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Environmental Law. Disrupted, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3308550 (January 10, 2019)

The U.S. regulatory environment is changing rapidly, at the same time that visible and profound impacts of climate change are already being felt throughout the world, and enormous, potentially existential threats loom in the not-so-distant future. What does it mean to think about and practice environmental law in this setting? In this latest in a biannual series of postings and essays, the authors, members of the Environmental Law Collaborative (ELC), have taken on the question of whether environmental law as we currently know it is up to the job of addressing these threats; and, if not, what the path forward should be.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Second-Order Inequality: Clarifying and Modeling the Gini Coefficient with Measures of Internal Asymmetry, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3302339 (January 2, 2019)

This paper presents a physical model of the Gini coefficient and its corresponding Lorenz curve. If the Lorenz curve is scaled to 1, then 1 represents gross domestic income, gross domestic product, or societal wealth. The value 1 also represents total population. On these assumptions, the value of x ∈ [0, 1] where the first derivative of the Gini coefficient equals one represents the population quantile that enjoys per capita income or wealth. This paper also describes methods for evaluating the internal asymmetry of any distribution corresponding to a particular Gini coefficient. It concludes with worked examples from Oxfam’s survey of global inequality and from French data on wealth inequality.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: What Causes Polarization on IP Policy?, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3140169 (December 20, 2018)

Polarization on contentious policy issues is a problem of national concern for both hot-button cultural issues such as climate change and gun control and for issues of interest to more specialized constituencies. Cultural debates have become so contentious that in many cases people are unable to agree even on the underlying facts needed to resolve these issues. Here, we tackle this problem in the context of intellectual property law. Despite an explosion in the quantity and quality of empirical evidence about the intellectual property system, IP policy debates have become increasingly polarized. This disagreement about existing evidence concerning the effects of the IP system hinders democratic deliberation and stymies progress.

Based on a survey of U.S. IP practitioners, this Article investigates the source of polarization on IP issues, with the goal of understanding how to better enable evidence-based IP policymaking. We hypothesized that, contrary to intuition, more ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Presidential Exit, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3100378 (December 11, 2018)

The flow of executive orders, presidential memoranda, proclamations, determinations, executive agreements, national security directives, signing statements and other pronouncements emanating from the early days of every White House administration — what presidency scholar Phillip Cooper calls presidential direct actions — serves as a lightning rod for claims that the president is engaged in a “power grab.” Not infrequently, however, one president’s grab is about taking back another president’s grab. This certainly was the case during the year of the Trump administration, but President Trump is by no means unique in this regard, for many of his predecessors did the same to their predecessors. The reality is that the act of revoking executive orders has become one of the principal strategic political uses of direct actions by recent presidents.

In this Article we probe this practice using a framework we developed in a previous article, Regulatory Exit, in which we examined the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Development Bridge Over Troubled Intellectual Property Water, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3027103 (December 5, 2018)

Written in celebration of Pedro Roffe's life and achievements, this chapter captures the many valuable contributions he has made in his three decades at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and a decade and a half at the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD). It focuses on three sets of development bridges that he has built and helped build in the intellectual property arena, drawing illustrations from the author's personal encounters with him and his organizations.

This chapter begins with bridges that allow us to revisit the past developments in the international intellectual property regime. It then turns to bridges that help provide a unique vantage point for taking stock of current developments and recognizing what is new and important in this regime. The chapter concludes with bridges that help advance the debate on intellectual property and global development while reorienting us towards a better future.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Imitative Pasts, Innovation Pathways and Intellectual Property, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3293718 (November 30, 2018)

Throughout history, countries have transformed from imitators to innovators. Cases in point are Germany, the United States, Japan, Singapore and South Korea, all of which have crossed over from the pirating side of the intellectual property divide to its more promising side. Thus far, it has been unclear how much of that crossover can be attributed to the development of a well-functioning intellectual property system, as opposed to other factors, such as the improved quality of higher education and increased research-and-development expenditures.

As important as intellectual property rights have been, their levels of protection and enforcement have not always been a good proxy for a country's innovative capabilities. Innovation comes in many different forms. While the past two centuries have seen intellectual property rights providing a major boost to innovation, such innovation can also be driven by necessity, patronage, grants and prizes. In the past decade, the relationship ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Lincoln, Presidential Power, and the Rule of Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3144115 (November 21, 2018)

Every era has its unique challenges, but history may still offer lessons on how law empowers and restrains presidents. This lecture examines how Lincoln negotiated the tension between crisis authority and the rule of law. This analysis requires an appreciation of the wartime imperatives, institutions, and political forces confronting Lincoln and of the legal framework in which he acted. Similar issues unexpectedly arose in our times in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, providing a new point of comparison with Lincoln’s era. We need to better understand how political actors and institutions, the media, and public opinion can provide support for legal norms, lest we place all of our trust in Presidential self-restraint and good judgment.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Special International Zones in Practice and Theory, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3271942 (November 19, 2018)

The French Republic had a problem. Foreign nationals had flown into the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris and claimed the right to stay as refugees seeking asylum. Unwilling to have the supposed refugees imposed upon it, France resolved to process their claims without letting them into the country. How? By keeping them in the airport’s international transit zone—the area between the exit doors of airplanes arriving from abroad and the far side of customs and immigration clearance. This split border allowed France to summarily process and (typically) deport the foreigners while keeping them outside the country’s territory for asylum purposes. When detainees got seriously ill, France created so-called “floating international zones” to take them to a local hospital, a portion of which became a temporary international zone. These French innovations in border control inspired Hungarian transit zones, Australian migration zones, and similar partial territories across the planet. ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Pathways of Multinational Intellectual Property Dispute Settlement, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3284942 (November 19, 2018)

Resolving foreign intellectual property disputes is difficult. While most rights holders have initially relied on domestic litigation in countries in which they invest or conduct business – or host states in investment lingo – the arrival of international intellectual property, trade and investment agreements have provided new alternative mechanisms for resolving these disputes. To help develop a deeper understanding of the different pathways of multinational intellectual property dispute settlement, this chapter brings together three types of dispute resolution mechanisms: domestic litigation in host states, state-to-state dispute settlement and investor-state dispute settlement. This chapter begins by identifying the various challenges multinational intellectual property rights holders encounter when they seek to resolve foreign disputes. It highlights the mixed success international intellectual property agreements have had in addressing these challenges. The chapter then ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Introduction to Intellectual Property Law and Policy in China, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3280257 (November 16, 2018)

This essay provides an introduction to Intellectual Property Law and Policy in China, a multiple-volume reference set on the Chinese intellectual property system. It discusses how the 90 articles and chapters selected for this reference set have been organized into four broadly defined areas: (1) historical evolution; (2) special topics; (3) interdisciplinary understanding; and (4) possible futures. The essay further explains why these four areas are important to readers who are eager to develop a deeper understanding of the Chinse intellectual property system.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Producer's Right in the Platform Economy, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3214691 (November 7, 2018)

In October 2017, the European Commission advanced a proposal for the creation of a new data producer's right for non-personal, anonymized machine-generated data. Driven in large part by the automotive industry, this proposal has thus far attracted considerable criticisms. While commentators have questioned whether the proposed right is needed in the first place, the EU proposal has also generated more questions than answers. Written for a special issue on the "Legal Implications of the Platform Economy," this essay begins by revisiting the debate on sui generis database protection in both the Europe Union and the United States. It then discusses the many difficult policy questions that policymakers will have to address before they can create the new right. The essay concludes by examining four additional complications that may make it difficult to develop a coherent body of laws to govern the emerging and fast-changing data economy.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: A Half-Century of Scholarship on the Chinese Intellectual Property System, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3107401 (November 7, 2018)

The first modern Chinese intellectual property law was established in August 1982, offering protection to trademarks. Since then, China adopted the Patent Law in 1984, the Copyright Law in 1990 and the Anti-Unfair Competition Law in 1993. In December 2001, China became a member of the World Trade Organization, assuming obligations under the TRIPS Agreement. In the past decade, the country has also actively participated in the negotiation of bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade agreements, including most notably the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. Today, the Chinese intellectual property system has garnered considerable global policy and scholarly attention. To help develop a more sophisticated, complex and nuanced understanding, this article reviews the past five decades of English-language scholarship on the system. It begins by creating a taxonomy of this body of literature based on the most common method — chronology. It then turns to an alternative method of ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Producer's Right and the Protection of Machine-Generated Data, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3271189 (November 5, 2018)

In a data-driven economy, there is enormous value in the data generated and collected by humans and machines—both consciously and subconsciously. With the arrival of big data analytics, data have also become highly valuable for uses other than what data producers or collectors initially intended. In view of the fast-growing value and multifaceted uses of data, the European Commission proposed to create a new data producer’s right for non-personal, anonymized machine-generated data in October 2017. This proposal has since been heavily criticized by legal commentators and consumer advocates. Thus far, the discussion about the proposal for a new data producer’s right has been limited to the European Union. Nevertheless, the United States has actively explored policies in response to changes in the data-driven economy and the growing significance of machine-generated data. Intellectual property developments in the European Union have also frequently traveled across the Atlantic to ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Conceptual and Institutional Improvements to Investor-State Dispute Settlement, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3266356 (October 23, 2018)

Commissioned for a research handbook on intellectual property and investment law, this chapter focuses on ways to improve investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) to address some of the concerns that have been identified when the ISDS mechanism is used in the intellectual property arena. The first half of this chapter identifies three sets of conceptual improvements – namely, those relating to the question about what constitutes investment, the role of intellectual property protection in an investment environment and the interrelationship between an international agreement containing ISDS and the host state’s obligations under other multilateral agreements. The second half of this chapter turns its attention to three institutional improvements – namely, the creation of an Advisory Centre on Investor-State Disputes, the development of a small claims procedure within the ISDS mechanism and the establishment of an appellate process to address investor-state disputes. Although the focus ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Politics of Professionalism: Reappraising Occupational Licensure and Competition Policy, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2881732 (October 17, 2018)

Elite economists and lawyers have united to criticize occupational licensing. They contend that licensure rules raise consumer prices and restrict labor market entry and job mobility. The Obama Administration’s Council of Economic Advisers and Federal Trade Commission have joined libertarians and conservatives in calling for occupational regulations to be scaled back. Billed as a bipartisan boost to market competition, this technocratic policy agenda rests on thin empirical foundations. Studies of the wage effects of licensing rarely couple this analysis of its putative “costs” with convincing analysis of the benefits of the professional or vocational education validated via licensure. While some licensing rules may be onerous and excessive, licensing rules are inadequate or underenforced in other labor markets. Furthermore, by limiting labor market entry, occupational licensing rules, like minimum wage and labor laws, can help raise and stabilize working and middle class wages — ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Medicalization of Rural Poverty: Challenges for Access, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3127049 (October 17, 2018)

This article was prepared for a live conference, on “The Medicalization of Poverty,” held at the University of Illinois College of Law, and a symposium to be published in the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. My piece focuses on a constellation of challenges for health care delivery and access to care in rural areas. Discussions regarding health and poverty often seem to focus on the admittedly persistent and multilayered problems of the urban poor: unemployment, substandard and unaffordable housing, violent crime, nutrition and “food desserts,” recreation and safe outdoor spaces, and under-resourced public schools, to name a few. While cities certainly constitute population centers for poverty, we should not confine our discussion to that context. Rural poverty and rural health disparities present additional, unique concerns for the medicalization of poverty. Access to medical care is particularly challenging in rural areas for an array of reasons, including financial ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Catholic Dioceses in Bankruptcy, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3253092 (October 13, 2018)

The Catholic Church is coping with mass tort liability for sexual abuse of children by priests. Since 2004, eighteen Catholic organizations have filed for relief in bankruptcy. Fifteen debtors emerged from bankruptcy after settling with sexual abuse claimants and insurers. During settlement negotiations, sexual abuse claimants and debtors clashed over the extent of the debtors’ property and ability to pay claims. Although such disputes are common in chapter 11 plan negotiations, the Catholic cases required the parties and bankruptcy courts to account for unique religious attributes of Catholic debtors. This article reviews the arguments and outcomes on property issues based on reported decisions, pleadings, plans, and disclosure statements. It explains the key characteristics of Catholic dioceses under canon and secular organization law and the bankruptcy contexts in which these characteristics became hot button issues. It offers an analysis of the legacy of the Catholic cases ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Realigning TRIPS-Plus Negotiations with UN Sustainable Development Goals, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3251667 (October 4, 2018)

In December 2015, the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which featured 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). These goals were developed at a time when countries were busy negotiating TRIPS-plus bilateral, regional and plurilateral agreements. This chapter explores how developing countries could have attained more success by realigning TRIPS-plus intellectual property negotiations with the SDGs. It begins by discussing the intersection between the SDGs and the development of the intellectual property system – at both the domestic and international levels. The chapter then outlines the direct and indirect impediments that the recent and ongoing negotiations for TRIPS-plus trade agreements have generated to the promotion and fulfilment of the SDGs. These agreements include the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (now the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership) and the Regional ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Neil Gorsuch and the Ginsburg Rules, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3249618 (September 17, 2018)

Supreme Court nominees testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee frequently invoke the so-called “Ginsburg Rule” to justify not answering questions posed to them. According to this “rule,” nominees during their testimony must avoid signaling their preferences about previously decided Supreme Court cases or constitutional issues. Using empirical data on every question asked and answered at every hearing from 1939–2017, we explore this “rule,” and its attribution to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. We demonstrate three things. First, the Ginsburg Rule is poorly named, given that the practice of claiming a privilege to not respond to certain types of questions predates the Ginsburg nomination by decades. Second, the Ginsburg Rule really is two rules: one governing when nominees should not provide direct responses to certain types of questions, and a second governing when they should. Third, we show that Neil Gorsuch, despite his insistence to the contrary, did not really follow the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Topic Modeling the President: Conventional and Computational Methods, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3086226 (September 17, 2018)

Law is generally represented through text, and lawyers have for centuries classified large bodies of legal text into distinct topics — they “topic model” the law. But large bodies of legal documents present challenges for conventional topic modeling methods. The task of gathering, reviewing, coding, sorting, and assessing a body of tens of thousands of legal documents is a daunting proposition. Recent advances in computational text analytics, a subset of the field of “artificial intelligence,” are already gaining traction in legal practice settings such as e-discovery by leveraging the speed and capacity of computers to process enormous bodies of documents. Differences between conventional and computational methods, however, suggest that computational text modeling has its own limitations, but that the two methods used in unison could be a powerful research tool for legal scholars in their research as well. To explore that potential — and to do so critically rather than under the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Investor-State Dispute Settlement and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3237541 (September 13, 2018)

This chapter critically examines the intellectual property rights holders' growing use of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) to resolve international intellectual property disputes. It begins by highlighting the criticisms of ISDS, including those that are related to the arbitration process, the arbitrators' interpretations and final arbitral outcomes. The chapter then examines the various upgrades that the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement has provided to the ISDS mechanism. It concludes by outlining the conceptual and institutional improvements that could strengthen ISDS. This chapter retains its analytical focus on the TPP investment chapter despite the United States' withdrawal from the pact in January 2017. The retained focus is due largely to the adoption of that chapter as part of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), which was established among the eleven remaining TPP partners in January 2018. The only provisions in ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Intellectual Property, Human Rights and Methodological Reflections, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3247346 (September 11, 2018)

Since the mid-2000s, scholars have paid considerable attention to the interface between intellectual property and human rights. Today, one can easily find books and law review articles on the subject. Initially, most of these discussions focused on topics such as access to essential medicines, access to knowledge, and the protection of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions. In recent years, however, the literature has been expanded to cover new or underexplored areas, such as Internet-related human rights, the right to science and culture, and the use of human rights impact assessments in the intellectual property area. Although scholarship on intellectual property and human rights has been growing rapidly, commentators have not devoted much explicit discussion to the different methods used to conduct research in this area. A greater methodological focus is particularly timely in light of the literature that has now slowly emerged to examine research methods in ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Groia: Four Strikes and You're Not Out, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3240138 (September 9, 2018)

This Comment reviews the 2018 Groia v. Law Society of Upper Canada decision by the Supreme Court of Canada. In this case, the Court held in favor of Mr. Groia, overturning two lower court decisions and two Law Society tribunal decisions. A central issue was when does incivility cross the line into professional misconduct worthy of sanction by a provincial or territorial law society. The Court held that, depending on the context, a lawyer's duty of resolute advocacy trumps the need for civil courtroom behavior. While the views of the majority of the Court are reasonable, the concurring decision by Justice Côté required greater scrutiny of a law society's decision to sanction courtroom behavior and would better protect judicial independence.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Fragile Menagerie: Biodiversity Loss, Climate Change, and the Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2862882 (August 30, 2018)

The greatest vectors of biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene epoch are climate change, habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, population, and overkill. Perversely enough, the legal understanding of extinction mechanisms remains frozen in time, like a cave dweller in ice. Climate change, habitat destruction, and alien invasive species should figure more prominently than overkill and the marketing of products derived from endangered species. The law, however, imposes its clearest and harshest sanctions precisely where the drivers of extinction are weakest: when humans consciously capture or kill other living things. The Endangered Species Act has been adapted to address habitat destruction on private land and to mitigate climate change. Nevertheless, the law’s lack of congruence with conservation biology impedes efforts to preserve biodiversity and mitigate climate change.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Shaping International Tax Law and Policy in Challenging Times, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3236304 (August 30, 2018)

This Article was prepared for a symposium on 'What's Law Got Do To With It? Examining the Role of Law in a Changing World.' The OECD and G20 Base Erosion and Profits (BEPS) project represents the most comprehensive global cooperative effort to date to inhibit aggressive international tax planning and offshore tax evasion — along with related revenue losses. This cooperation promotes agreement on the underlying tax rules that govern cross-border transactions and reduces tax as a barrier to international trade and investment, hence improving global welfare. It remains unclear, however, whether ongoing cooperative solutions outside of tax administration will curtail perceived problems in any significant sense. Moreover, global political trends, including anti-globalization, nationalism, and populism — along with the rise of countries historically left off the bargaining table — make progress through international cooperation even more elusive. As a result of these forces, governments ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Comparative Lessons of Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v Russian Kurier, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3200860 (August 30, 2018)

For a large part of the past century, the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United States and Russia’s continued refusal to join the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the predominant international copyright agreement, have raised complicated questions concerning the protection of Russian authors in the United States. The case that has received considerable attention in intellectual property literature is Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v Russian Kurier, Inc. Filed in the mid-1990s, shortly after Russia’s accession to the Berne Convention, this case covered not only choice-of-law questions in the intellectual property field, but also the interrelationship between domestic law and international treaties. Less frequently explored, however, are the rich comparative lessons that the case has provided on the development of intellectual property law and policy in Central and Eastern Europe. Taking advantage of the twentieth anniversary of the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Speculative Undertakings: Rate Regulation as a Branch of Corporate Finance, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3103627 (August 24, 2018)

The law of regulated industries, particularly the legislative command that the government ensure “just and reasonable rates” for regulated services, is a highly specialized application of financial economics. Ratemaking, to put it bluntly, represents a regulatory exercise in capital asset pricing. As a matter of economics, this article describes ratemaking as a variation on the theme of uncertainty in mathematical finance. As a matter of law, this article describes legal principles guiding the determination of the rate of return on property dedicated to public use. It closely analyzes two regulatory valuation methods derived from the 1923 Bluefield Water Works decision (“attracting capital” and “comparable earnings”), as well as a third approach based on the capital asset pricing model. Discretionary elements in rate regulation make it impossible to wholly alleviate uncertainty in the pricing of utility infrastructure. Utility rate regulation therefore constitutes a speculative ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Legal Responses in the United States to Biodiversity Loss and Climate Change, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2864062 (August 24, 2018)

The greatest vectors of biodiversity loss today are climate change, habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, population, and overkill. Climate change, habitat destruction, and alien invasive species should figure more prominently than overkill and the marketing of products derived from endangered species. The law, however, imposes its clearest, harshest sanctions precisely where the drivers of extinction are weakest: when humans consciously capture or kill other living things. More helpfully, the Endangered Species Act has been adapted to address habitat destruction on private land and to mitigate climate change.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Truth and Beauty: Finance in Econophysical Translation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3067353 (August 24, 2018)

My recent book, Econophysics and Capital Asset Pricing: Splitting the Atom of Systematic Risk, splits beta, the capital asset pricing model’s basic unit of systematic risk, into subatomic (or “baryonic”) components, by analogy to the Standard Model of particle physics. This essay offers preliminary thoughts on the application of physics to other dimensions of finance. A more comprehensive approach would integrate Econophysics and Capital Asset Pricing’s spatial representation of comovement between individual firms, capital markets, and the real economy, with the informational and temporal dimensions of finance. This essay also places efforts at representing finance through physics in their broader scientific and aesthetic context.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Baryonic Beta Dynamics: An Econophysical Model of Systematic Risk, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3062414 (August 24, 2018)

This essay seeks to rehabilitate the capital asset pricing model by splitting beta, the basic unit of systematic risk, into subatomic (or “baryonic”) components. By analogy to quantum chromodynamics and other aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics, this essay bifurcates beta on either side of mean returns and into distinct components reflecting relative volatility and correlation, as well as cash-flow and discount-rate effects. Splitting the atom of systematic risk answers some of the most troubling anomalies and puzzles in finance, including abnormal returns on small-cap and value stocks, the low-volatility anomaly, and the equity premium puzzle.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: The Case for the Repeal of the Fifteenth Amendment in the Yale Law Journal, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2957111 (August 20, 2018)

In June 1903, in the depths of the Jim Crow system, the Yale Law Journal published an article by famed New York corporate lawyer John R. Dos Passos (whose son, with the same name, later became a famous modernist novelist and socialist). The article, entitled “The Negro Question,” argued that many African American citizens in southern state were not yet ready for voting rights. The article defended the restriction of rights in southern states since the end of Reconstruction among African-Americans. Dos Passos’ article has received virtually no attention in recent years. It is important evidence of the intellectual credibility of ideas of segregation and second-class citizenship at the turn of the twentieth century. It reveals the breadth of the entrenched opposition to the ideas of racial equality. And it invites further examination of how law reviews in the early twentieth century supported Jim Crow segregation.  
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Professional Judgment in an Era of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3067711 (August 16, 2018)

There are two fundamental features of the information processing behind most efforts to substitute artificial intelligence, machine learning, and robotics for professionals in health and education: reductionism and functionalism. However, true professional judgment hinges on a way of knowing the world and relating to persons that is at odds with the mindset of substitutive automation. Instead of reductionism, an encompassing holism is a hallmark of professional practice — an ability to integrate facts and values, to respect the demands of the particular case and prerogatives of society, and to balance mission and margin in institutional decision-making. Any presently plausible vision of substituting artificial intelligence for education and health care professionals would be premised on patients and students accepting services as “medical care” or “education” that are often far inferior to what a skilled, reflective practitioner in either field could provide. The only way these ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Transcript - Conference on the Ethics of Legal Scholarship, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3217300 (August 14, 2018)

This is a transcript of the proceedings of the Conference on the Ethics of Legal Scholarship held at Marquette University Law School on September 15-16, 2017. Topics addressed include (1) what counts as legal scholarship and what is the obligation of neutrality?, (2) the obligations of sincerity, candor, and exhaustiveness, and (3) the mechanisms of legal scholarship, especially law reviews and the issues they create. The conference's working aim was to generate and propose a set of ethical guidelines for legal scholarship.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: The RCEP Negotiations and Asian Intellectual Property Norm Setters, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3229057 (August 9, 2018)

This chapter closely examines the negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Asian countries' recent efforts to set regional intellectual property norms. The RCEP negotiations are particularly important to Asian intellectual property developments because the RCEP remains the first and only mega-regional agreement that Asian countries have negotiated without the participation of either the European Union or the United States. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the evolution of the RCEP negotiations, noting the initial rivalry between the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the RCEP, the United States' withdrawal from the former and the adoption of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). This chapter then highlights the different intellectual property provisions in the draft RCEP intellectual property chapter, focusing on the four main branches of intellectual property law as well as the areas of ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Agriculture, End to End, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3218894 (August 9, 2018)

Agriculture consists of a process for converting energy and biological information into physical products for human consumption. Increasingly sophisticated biotechnology in agricultural inputs makes manifest this definition of agriculture as information flow. The architectural ideal in information science is the end-to-end principle. All intelligence within an information platform arises from its ends. The corollary of the end-to-end principle, however, is that intervening layers facilitating the transmission of intelligence become “dumb pipe,” whose sole contribution consists of efficient transport of information. Within its own domain, agriculture has become dumb pipe. The rise of bioengineered inputs has rendered obsolete the evolutionary contribution of farmers. At the other end of the value chain, consumer-driven preferences in food restrict the inputs that farmers may deploy. “Intelligence” propelled by preferences and tastes among affluent consumers constrain choices ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Fair Use and Its Global Paradigm Evolution, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3206464 (August 7, 2018)

Legal paradigms change in response to political, economic, social, cultural and technological conditions. While these paradigms have moved from developed to developing countries, they rarely move in the opposite direction. Nevertheless, some transplants from developed countries do involve legal paradigms that align well with the needs, interests, conditions and priorities of developing countries. A case in point is the transplant of the fair use model in U.S. copyright law, which has attracted considerable debate, research and policy attention in the past few decades. Because legal literature has thus far underanalyzed the transplant of the U.S. fair use model, this article devotes its analysis to fair use transplants. It begins by reviewing the literature concerning paradigm shift, in particular Thomas Kuhn’s seminal work. The article then documents a growing trend toward the worldwide adoption of the U.S. fair use model and a countertrend toward the retention of the status quo. The ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Toward a Critical Theory of Corporate Wellness, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3010313 (August 6, 2018)

In the U.S., ‘employee wellness’ programs are increasingly attached to employer-provided health insurance. These programs attempt to nudge employees, sometimes quite forcefully, into healthy behaviors such as smoking cessation and exercise routines. Despite being widely promoted as saving on healthcare costs, numerous studies undermine this rationale. After documenting the programs’ failure to deliver a positive return on investment, we analyze them as instead providing an opportunity for employers to exercise increasing control over their employees. Based on human capital theory and neoliberal models of subjectivity that emphasize personal control and responsibility, these programs treat wellness as a lifestyle that employees must be cajoled into adopting, extending the workplace not just into the home but into the bodies of workers, and entrenching the view that one belongs to one’s workplace. At the same time, their selective endorsement of health programs (many scientifically ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: דירוג כתבי עת משפטיים עבריים - יסודות עיוניים ומחקר אמפירי ראשוני (Ranking Hebrew Law Reviews: Theoretical Foundations and a Preliminary Empirical Study), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=908334 (August 5, 2018)

Hebrew Abstract: בעשורים האחרונים נעשו בארצות הברית מספר ניסיונות לדרג כתבי-עת משפטיים מקומיים על פי מדדים שונים – כמותיים ואיכותיים. בישראל טרם נעשה ניסיון דומה. מטרתו של מאמר זה כפולה. היעד הראשון הוא להציע תשתית עיונית לדירוג רציף של כתבי עת משפטיים בכלל, וכתבי עת משפטיים עבריים בפרט. המאמר מנתח את שיטות הדירוג השונות שהוצעו במרוצת השנים במדינות-הים. הוא מבקר ושולל את השימוש בשיטות המתבססות על מידת החשיבות של מחברות המאמרים; על העברת סקרים בין המשתמשות בכתבי העת; על שיפוט בידי ועדות מומחים; על היקף השימוש בכתבי העת בספריות משפטיות ועל שיעור-הדחייה של מאמרים. לאחר מכן מציע המאמר להשתמש בשיטה המבוססת על שכיחות האיזכורים של כל אחד מכתבי העת, הן בכתיבה האקדמית והן בפסיקה (במיוחד זו של בית המשפט העליון). ההנחה העומדת ביסודה של השיטה המוצעת היא שמספר האיזכורים (בכתיבה האקדמית ובפסיקה) מספק אינדיקציה כמותית, אם כי לא לגמרי מדויקת, למידת ההשפעה של כתבי העת השונים על השיח המשפטי (האקדמי והמעשי בהתאמה). English Abstract: In recent decades several scholars have attempted to ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Intellectual Property, Economic Development, and the China Puzzle, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=978301 (August 1, 2018)

Since the late 1980s, the Chinese economy has been growing at an enviable average annual rate of about 10 per cent. Accompanying this unprecedented economic development and growth was the maturation of the modern Chinese intellectual property system. Since the reopening of its market to foreign trade in the late 1970s, China introduced its first modern copyright, patent, and trademark laws. A decade later, China revamped its intellectual property system in response to US pressure and did so again in preparation for its accession to the WTO. At present, China is a proud member of many multilateral intellectual property agreements. Notwithstanding these developments, the enforcement of intellectual property rights in China remains inadequate. Although commentators often link intellectual property protection with economic development, China thus far has presented a puzzle to those who study this link. While some commentators consider China a paradigmatic case for showing that rapid ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: אידיאליזם מול פרגמטיזם: הרהורים אודות הפולמוס בעניינם של נפגעי תאונות-הדרכים (Idealism v. Pragmatism: Reflections on the Road Accident Victims Polemic), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180157 (July 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: המטרה העיקרית של רשימה זו היא לנסות ולהכריע במחלוקת עזה ונוקבת שנפלה בין שניים מגדולי המומחים לדיני נזיקין בישראל בדבר אופיו של ההסדר הראוי לטיפול בנפגעי תאונות דרכים. משניהם קניתי דעת ולשניהם אני אסיר-תודה. האחד, פרופסור אמריטוס בפקולטה למשפטים של האוניברסיטה העברית, רב ידע ועתיר ניסיון, השופט בדימוס יצחק אנגלרד. השני, מרצה צעיר, נמרץ ומבטיח לדיני-נזיקין בפקולטה יוקרתית, ד"ר אנגלרד יצחק. הראשון, שהחל לפעול בשלהי שנות השמונים ונמנה על חסידיו של ההסדר הקיים, יכונה להלן אנגלרד הפרגמטיסט. השני, שפעל בעיקר בין שנות השישים לשנות השמונים וצידד בלהט בהסדר חלופי, יכונה כאן אנגלרד האידיאליסט. המאמר ינסה לשרטט את עיקרי הדיאלוג הבין-זמני בין שני האנגלרדים ביחס לרפורמה שנעשתה אצלנו לפני שלושה עשורים בתחום הפיצוי לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, ויטען שעמדתו של אנגלרד האידיאליסט הייתה ועודנה עדיפה.

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Scholar's Dilemma, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3102646 (July 24, 2018)

This essay pursues questions relating to scholarly motivation. What motivates the production of scholarship, and what ought to motivate it? Is it appropriate for a scholar to seek a reputation for its own sake, or for the associated invitations, recognitions, and lateral offers a reputation might produce? Or should the scholar be more like the (stereotypical) artist, seeking to pursue her conception of truth regardless of whether the world rewards her vision? This essay begins with work considering related questions in the world of art, then turns to an examination of scholarly motivation and its relationship to academic freedom and academic responsibility. On most accounts, individual scholars enjoy academic freedom as a means of furthering the social goal of knowledge production. That freedom, like most freedoms, is qualified. It is a freedom not to do as one wishes, but to pursue truth, and to do so in a scholarly manner, using scholarly methods. It thus entails certain ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: כללי אזכור בכתיבה משפטית — הרהורים על עיצוב נורמות של שיח
Legal Citation Rules: Reflections on the Formation of Discourse Norms
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=1025530 (July 20, 2018)

In the spring of 2006, an 80 pages booklet, sponsored by four Israeli law reviews, and titled Uniform Citation Rules in Legal Writing, was published in Israel. Given its cover color and notable similarity to the American Bluebook, we called it The Purplebook. The Haifa Law Review had to decide whether to substitute the new rules for its traditional citation method. The Editors' reflections on this seemingly technical matter generated interesting queries about the need for uniform citation rules, the process of their formulation, endorsement and modification, their substance and their form. The unprecedented opportunity to seriously deliberate on the various aspects of legal citation has yielded this essay. To begin with, the essay examines the need for uniformity in citation, and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of such uniformity on different levels of abstraction. Considerations pertaining to aesthetics, efficiency, and preservation of unique-identities (pluralism) go ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Role of Retributive Justice in the Common Law of Torts: A Descriptive Theory, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=846309 (July 20, 2018)

This article is the first academic attempt to explain in a systematic manner how the third-form-of-justice, usually thought of as one of the theoretical foundations of criminal law, operates within the law of torts. Tort jurisprudence is definitely not the natural habitat for retributive concerns. Since retributive justice is technically inconsistent with the corrective structure of tort law its role is (and probably ought to be) very limited. The article first explains the notion of retributive justice and defends the view that it constitutes a third form of justice, distinct from the classical Aristotelian forms. It then rejects monistic retributive theories of tort law, and argues that retributive justice penetrates the corrective pattern of tort law only within two conceptual paradigms: (1) the prevention of abominable disproportion paradigm, and (2) the preservation of criminal justice paradigm. It subsequently demonstrates this theory in a methodical manner with notable ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Seeing Is Believing — Foreword to Nicholas L. Georgakopoulos, Illustrating Finance Policy with Mathematica, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3194399 (July 4, 2018)

Truth routinely manifests itself through mathematics. Just as law uses words to animate its enterprise, nature speaks through the language of mathematics. Through this volume, Illustrating Finance Policy with Mathematica, Nicholas L. Georgakopoulos enriches the Palgrave Macmillan, series, Quantitative Perspectives on Behavioral Economics and Finance, by demonstrating the mathematical underpinnings of law and finance in vivid, visual terms.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Thinking About the Trans-Pacific Partnership (and a Mega-Regional Agreement on Life Support), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2957006 (July 1, 2018)

Commissioned for a conference on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) at VNU University of Economics & Law in Vietnam, this article provides a retrospective analysis of the partnership. It begins with a historical overview of the TPP. The article then examines the partnership’s status in light of the United States' withdrawal and contends that the TPP will exert considerable influence regardless of whether it is dead or alive. The second half of this article identifies three interrelated but distinct aspects of the TPP: (1) as a TRIPS-plus intellectual property agreement; (2) as a regional investment agreement; and (3) as a plurilateral trade agreement. The analysis in this portion of the article will be applicable to not only the TPP Agreement, but also the development of future bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade agreements.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: על אחריותם בנזיקין של סרבני גט (Tort Liability of Recalcitrant Husbands), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=908331 (June 22, 2018)

Hebrew Abstract:אלמונית ופלוני, יהודים תושבי ישראל, נישאים זו לזה על פי דין תורה. בשלב מסוים עולה מערכת היחסים על שרטון והאישה מבקשת להתגרש מן האיש. בית דין רבני קובע כי האיש חייב לגרש את אשתו אולם זה אינו שועה להחלטה. חוק בתי דין רבניים (קיום פסקי דין של גירושין), התשנ"ה-1995 מאפשר לבית הדין לנקוט כנגד אותו אדם סנקציות שונות כדי להניעו לחזור בו מסירובו. אלא שחרף הסנקציות המוטלות עליו, ואולי אף בשל אי נכונותו של בית הדין לעשות שימוש בסמכויותיו לפי החוק – האיש עומד במריו. האישה אינה יכולה להינשא לאחר (או אפילו לחיות עימו אם ברצונה להינשא לו בבוא העת), ואינה יכולה ללדת ילדים לאחר מבלי שידבק בהם כתם הממזרות. מסורבת הגט לא רק כלואה בתוך מסגרת משפחתית בלתי רצויה אלא גם מנועה מהקמת מסגרת משפחתית חדשה. פוטנציאל הסבל עצום. מטרתו של המאמר היא לברר אם מסורבת הגט תוכל להיפרע את נזקה מן הסרבן. בשלב הראשון בוחן המאמר אם לבית משפט אזרחי סמכות עניינית לדון בתביעת נזיקין המוגשת כנגד סרבן הגט על יסוד ההנחה שקיים פסק דין של גירושין. בשלב השני נבחנות עילות תביעה פוטנציאליות. בידי האישה יש, ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Response and Recovery after Maria: Lessons for Disaster Law and Policy, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3174466 (June 21, 2018)

Hurricane Maria had a devastating impact on Puerto Rico. The federal response to Maria was slow, leaving much of the population without basic necessities for extended periods. Lives were lost as a result. The federal government failed to rise to the challenges posed by logistic difficulties and strained agency resources due to preceding disasters. The response was hindered by unrealistic planning, by Puerto Rico’s lack of political power in Washington, and by presidential indifference. In the end, despite its much greater needs, Puerto Rico received assistance much more slowly than Houston. This article analyzes the reasons for the flawed response and proposes improvements in future disaster policy. Like Katrina, Maria is a story of how systems failed just when they were most needed by our most vulnerable citizens.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Tech Platforms and the Knowledge Problem, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3197292 (June 20, 2018)

Jeffersonians call for a new era of antitrust enforcement to break up giant firms. These populist and localist critics of leading technology platforms, megabanks, and health care behemoths are decentralizers. They believe that, in a just society, power must be widely dispersed. They promote strong local authorities to counterbalance the centripetal accumulation of wealth and power in multinational firms. By contrast, Hamiltonians have promoted gigantism as inevitable or desirable, and argue that we simply need better rules to cabin abuses of corporate power. They argue that massive stores of data are critical to the future of artificial intelligence—and thus to the productive dynamism of the economy. They focus on improving the regulation of leading firms rather than on breaking them up. Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians express very different views on what an optimal economy looks like. In the long run, their visions are probably irreconcilable. In the short run, however, both ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: מהפך או מפח? סיפורו של חוק פיצויים לנפגעי תאונות דרכים (A Misrepresented Reform: The Story of the Road Accidents Victims' Compensation Act), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=882860 (June 18, 2018)

Hebrew Abstract: המניע הרשמי לחקיקת חוק פיצויים לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, תשל"ה-1975, היה מניע סוציאלי. בהתאם לתפיסה המסורתית, המוצגת בחלקו הראשון של המאמר, החוק נועד להבטיח פיצוי מהיר ונאות לכל אדם שנפגע בתאונת דרכים. הוויתור על יסוד האשמה, הרחבתה של חובת הביטוח והקמת "קרנית" היו אמורים להפוך את החזון למציאות. כמו כן, כדי להקל על הנפגע את סבלו וכדי למנוע לחץ לפשרה מצד חברות הביטוח העניק המחוקק לכל נפגע זכות לתשלום תכוף, המשולם עוד לפני סיומו של ההליך. אגב הגשמת הייעוד הסוציאלי היה החוק אמור לתרום להפחתת העומס על מערכת המשפט. חלקו השני של המאמר מראה, כי הצגת חוק הפיצויים כהסדר מהפכני המבטיח פיצוי מספק לנפגעים שלא היו זכאים לסעד בלעדיו או שהיו יכולים לזכות בפיצוי חלקי בלבד היא, למצער, מוגזמת. מנסחי החוק ומפרשיו הפריזו בחשיבות הוויתור על דרישת האשמה להרחבת חוג הנפגעים שהיו יכולים לזכות בפיצוי בלעדיו לא רק מפני שהתייחסו לדרישה זו כאל מהמורה גדולה יותר מכפי שהייתה באמת בדרכו של תובע פוטנציאלי, אלא גם משום שיצרו מצג מוטעה ומטעה שלפיו משטר האחריות המוחלטת מגשים את האידיאל של "פיצוי לכל ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: כללי אזכור בכתיבה משפטית — הרהורים על עיצוב נורמות של שיח (Legal Citation Rules: Reflections on the Formation of Discourse Norms), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=1025530 (June 18, 2018)

In the spring of 2006, an 80 pages booklet, sponsored by four Israeli law reviews, and titled Uniform Citation Rules in Legal Writing, was published in Israel. Given its cover color and notable similarity to the American Bluebook, we called it The Purplebook. The Haifa Law Review had to decide whether to substitute the new rules for its traditional citation method. The Editors' reflections on this seemingly technical matter generated interesting queries about the need for uniform citation rules, the process of their formulation, endorsement and modification, their substance and their form. The unprecedented opportunity to seriously deliberate on the various aspects of legal citation has yielded this essay. To begin with, the essay examines the need for uniformity in citation, and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of such uniformity on different levels of abstraction. Considerations pertaining to aesthetics, efficiency, and preservation of unique-identities (pluralism) go ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Higher-Moment Asset Pricing and Environmental Economics, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3188101 (June 13, 2018)

This essay presents higher-moment asset pricing, a generalized approach to finance that combines a mathematically informed understanding of economic fundamentals with psychologically and biologically inspired behavioral insights. It ultimately seeks to apply higher-moment asset pricing to a wide range of valuation and decisionmaking problems in environmental economics.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: On Exactitude in Financial Regulation: Value-at-Risk, Expected Shortfall, and Expectiles, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3136278 (June 12, 2018)

This article reviews two leading measures of financial risk and an emerging alternative. Embraced by the Basel accords, value-at-risk and expected shortfall are the leading measures of financial risk. Expectiles offset the weaknesses of value-at-risk (VaR) and expected shortfall. Indeed, expectiles are the only elicitable law-invariant coherent risk measures. After reviewing practical concerns involving backtesting and robustness, this article more closely examines regulatory applications of expectiles. Expectiles are most readily evaluated as a special class of quantiles. For ease of regulatory implementation, expectiles can be defined exclusively in terms of VaR, expected shortfall, and the thresholds at which those competing risk measures are enforced. Moreover, expectiles are in harmony with gain/loss ratios in financial risk management. Expectiles may address some of the flaws in VaR and expected shortfall — subject to the reservation that no risk measure can achieve exactitude ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: ייצוג בהליכי פישור בבתי הדין לעבודה
Representation in Evaluative Mediation in the Employment Tribunals System
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180284 (June 12, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: בשנים האחרונות גוברת בישראל, כמו בעולם כולו, ההכרה בחשיבותן של דרכים חלופיות ליישוב סכסוכים, במיוחד בתחומים שבהם הסכסוך הטיפוסי נוצר בין צדדים שיש ביניהם קשר עמוק וארוך טווח שעשוי להמשיך ולהתקיים גם בתום הסכסוך, כגון תחום יחסי העבודה ותחום המשפחה. הליכי גישור ופישור הם חלק בלתי נפרד מפעילותם של בתי הדין לעבודה כבר שנים לא מעטות, ויש להניח כי חלקם היחסי בפעילות הכוללת של בתי הדין רק הולך ועולה.

מאמר זה עוסק בהשפעת הייצוג על תוצאות הליכי הפישור בבתי הדין לעבודה ובהשפעת השימוש במנגנון הפישור על התוצאה. בכך הוא מצטרף לספרות הקיימת ותורם לדיון הציבורי על דרכים חלופיות ליישוב סכסוכים בכלל ועל השימוש בהן בבתי הדין לעבודה בפרט.

פרק ב מציג את המסגרת לניהול הליכי פישור בבית הדין לעבודה ואת השערות המחקר מתוך עיון בספרות הרלוונטית. השערותינו העיקריות היו שייצוג של שני הצדדים מפחית את הסתברות הפשרה, שכאשר רק אחד מן הצדדים מיוצג תיטה תוצאת ההליך לטובתו (כשהמדד לכך הוא היחס בין הסכום שמקבל התובע לבין הסכום שנתבע), ושכאשר לעורך הדין המייצג ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: New Economic Analysis of Law: Beyond Technocracy and Market Design, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3193206 (June 11, 2018)

This is the introduction to a special issue of Critical Analysis of Law on New Economic Analysis of Law (guest edited by Frank Pasquale). The issue features illuminating syntheses of social science and law, asking pointed questions about the future of interdisciplinarity here. What would law and economics look like if macroeconomics were a concern of scholars now focused almost entirely on microeconomics? Do emerging online phenomena, such as algorithmic pricing and platform capitalism, promise to perfect economic theories of market equilibrium, or challenge their foundations? How did simplified economic models gain ideological power in policy circles, and how can they be improved or replaced? This issue highlights scholars whose work has made the legal academy more than an “importer” of ideas from other disciplines—and who have, instead, shown that rigorous legal analysis is fundamental to understanding economic affairs. The essays in this issue should help ensure that ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, Update: A Rule of Persons, Not Machines: The Limits of Legal Automation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3135549 (June 6, 2018)

For many legal futurists, attorneys’ work is a prime target for automation. They view the legal practice of most businesses as algorithmic: data (such as facts) are transformed into outputs (agreements or litigation stances) via application of set rules. These technophiles promote substituting computer code for contracts and descriptions of facts now written by humans. They point to early successes in legal automation as proof of concept. TurboTax has helped millions of Americans file taxes, and algorithms have taken over certain aspects of stock trading. Corporate efforts to “formalize legal code” may bring new efficiencies in areas of practice characterized by both legal and factual clarity. However, legal automation can also elide or exclude important human values, necessary improvisations, and irreducibly deliberative governance. Due process, appeals, and narratively intelligible explanation from persons, for persons, depend on forms of communication that are not reducible to ...
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%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: הטיות מגדריות בתפיסת הכרעות שיפוטיות
Gender Biases in the Perception of Judgments
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180587 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: מחקרים רבים בחנו את השפעת השתייכותם של שופטים לקבוצה חברתית מסוימת (כגון מגדר, גזע, דת, גיל וזיקה פוליטית) על החלטותיהם. מאמרנו הוא הראשון לבחון אם השתייכות לקבוצה חברתית (של השופט או של המתבונן במערכת המשפט) משפיעה על התפיסה הציבורית של החלטות שיפוטיות. בחינת קיומן, היקפן ומגבלותיהן של הטיות על בסיס קבוצתי בתפיסת הכרעות שיפוטיות מצריכה התפתחות והצטברות הדרגתית של מחקר. המאמר מתמקד בשאלות ספציפיות שהתוויית המתודולוגיה לבחינתן, ואולי גם הממצאים העולים מהפעלתה, עשויים לסלול את הדרך לבירור יסודי ומעמיק יותר של השאלות הכלליות. המאמר ממקד את הדיון בהטיות המבוססות על מגדר. הוא בוחן, ראשית, אם מגדר השופט משפיע על האופן שבו נתפסת הכרעתו, לאמור: האם הכרעות שיפוטיות של שופטים נתפסות באופן שונה מהכרעות שיפוטיות של שופטות; ושנית, האם מגדר המתבונן משפיע על האופן שבו הוא תופס את ההכרעה השיפוטית, דהיינו האם הכרעות שיפוטיות נתפסות באופן שונה על ידי גברים ונשים. יתר על כן, המאמר ממקד את הדיון בהקשר המיוחד של הכרעות בעלות נגיעה מגדרית (תיקי אונס). הוא בוחן אם תפיסת ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: אחריות שובתים בגין נזקי צד ג
Strikers Liability for Third Party Harm
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180584 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: מאמר זה עוסק בשאלת אחריותם בנזיקין של עובדים וארגוני עובדים המעורבים בשביתה כנגד מעסיק מסוים כלפי צדדים שלישיים שנפגעו מאותה השביתה. המאמר מציע מסגרת עיונית חדשה להערכת תביעות של צדדים שלישיים, שביסודה שילוב ואיזון בין שני עקרונות יסודיים של דיני הנזיקין. בהתאם לעקרון הראשון, שאכנה עקרון ההכנעה, דיני הנזיקין אינם רשאים לחתור תחת מערכת משפטית ספציפית המסדירה את הקצאת הכוח במקרה הקונקרטי, במיוחד כאשר מערכת זו עוצבה בזהירות ובהדרגה על ידי הרשות המחוקקת, בעזרת הרשות המבצעת ובתי משפט שהוסמכו לעסוק בנושא. בהתאם לעקרון השני, המוכר יותר, שאכנה עקרון הסבירות, שובתים כמו מזיקים פוטנציאליים אחרים נדרשים לנקוט באמצעי זהירות יעילים למניעת נזק לזולתם. המאמר יטען כי בסיטואציה הנדונה תחולה בו-זמנית של שני העקרונות מחייבת ויתור על תחולה מלאה וקוהרנטית של כל אחד מהם. מחד גיסא, עקרון הסבירות לא יוחל באופן מלא על מנת לקיים את עקרון ההכנעה—כאן הכנעת דיני הנזיקין בפני מאזן הכוחות שהתוו דיני העבודה. מאידך גיסא, יש להכיר בחריג לעקרון ההכנעה כדי למנוע סטייה משמעותית מעקרון ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: אקטיביזם שיפוטי בדיני הנזיקין: טקסונומיה של פסקי ברק
Judicial Activism in Tort Law: A Taxonomy of Chief Justice Barak's Decisions
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180170 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: במאמרו בכרך זה בחן ישראל גלעד באופן ביקורתי את תרומתו הישירה והעקיפה של הנשיא בדימוס אהרן ברק לעיצוב גבולות האחריות בנזיקין, במיוחד במסגרת עוולת הרשלנות. בין היתר טען גלעד כי בפסיקתו של ברק ניכרת מגמה של הרחבת בסיס האחריות. איני חפץ לבקר טענה זו, המקובלת עליי עקרונית, אלא להציע נקודת מבט נוספת על אותם ממצאים. רשימתי תתמקד אפוא בשאלה הבאה: האם ובאיזו מידה פסיקתו של ברק בתחום הנזיקין מבטאת אקטיביזם שיפוטי? דומני כי הדיון בשאלה זו יעניין מאוד אף את ברק עצמו, ולא רק מפני שפסקי דינו הם מושא המחקר אלא גם ובעיקר מפני ששאלת המחקר משלבת שתיים מאהבותיו הגדולות: דיני הנזיקין הם "אהבת נעוריו", ולחקר מלאכת השיפוט נתונה חיבתו בשני העשורים האחרונים.

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: אידיאליזם מול פרגמטיזם: הרהורים אודות הפולמוס בעניינם של נפגעי תאונות-הדרכים
Idealism V. Pragmatism: Reflections on the Road Accident Victims Polemic
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180157 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: המטרה העיקרית של רשימה זו היא לנסות ולהכריע במחלוקת עזה ונוקבת שנפלה בין שניים מגדולי המומחים לדיני נזיקין בישראל בדבר אופיו של ההסדר הראוי לטיפול בנפגעי תאונות דרכים. משניהם קניתי דעת ולשניהם אני אסיר-תודה. האחד, פרופסור אמריטוס בפקולטה למשפטים של האוניברסיטה העברית, רב ידע ועתיר ניסיון, השופט בדימוס יצחק אנגלרד. השני, מרצה צעיר, נמרץ ומבטיח לדיני-נזיקין בפקולטה יוקרתית, ד"ר אנגלרד יצחק. הראשון, שהחל לפעול בשלהי שנות השמונים ונמנה על חסידיו של ההסדר הקיים, יכונה להלן אנגלרד הפרגמטיסט. השני, שפעל בעיקר בין שנות השישים לשנות השמונים וצידד בלהט בהסדר חלופי, יכונה כאן אנגלרד האידיאליסט. המאמר ינסה לשרטט את עיקרי הדיאלוג הבין-זמני בין שני האנגלרדים ביחס לרפורמה שנעשתה אצלנו לפני שלושה עשורים בתחום הפיצוי לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, ויטען שעמדתו של אנגלרד האידיאליסט הייתה ועודנה עדיפה.

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: יסוד ההתרשלות בעוולת הרשלנות: תיאוריה פוזיטיבית וביקורת נורמטיבית
The Notion of Reasonableness in Negligence: A Positive Theory and a Normative Critique
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180164 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: מאמר זה בוחן את הגדרתו של יסוד ההתרשלות בעוולת הרשלנות נוסח ישראל מפרספקטיבה היסטורית-תיאורית ומפרספקטיבה עיונית-נורמטיבית. פרק א מראה, כי למרות שבית המשפט העליון מעולם לא אימץ באורח פסקני הגדרה עיונית אקסקלוסיבית למושג ההתרשלות, התפיסה הדומיננטית של מונח זה בפסיקה הישראלית הייתה ועודנה תפיסה כלכלית. הגדרה אחת שנתקבלה אצלנו כבר בשלהי שנות החמישים מקבילה, פחות או יותר, לנוסחה האלגברית הידועה שטבע השופט האמריקני לרנד-הנד, לפיה התרשלות משמעה אי-נקיטה באמצעי זהירות שעלותו נמוכה מתוחלת הנזק שיש בכוחו למנוע. הגדרה שנייה, ותיקה ונפוצה אף היא, בוחנת את תוחלת הנזק, עלות מניעתו והתועלת שניתן להפיק מהפעילות יוצרת הסיכון. במרוצת השנים בית המשפט העליון אף עידן ועדכן את הנוסחאות המסורתיות על בסיס תובנות כלכליות. לזמן מה נדמה היה כי נוצרים בקיעים בתפיסה המסורתית. שתי הגדרות חדשות, לא-כלכליות, למושג ההתרשלות הוצעו בפסיקה הישראלית. האחת מבקשת להחדיר שיקולים לא-כלכליים אל תוך הנוסחה האלגברית של לרנד-הנד, אשר הופכת בכך לפורמולה תוצאתנית חובקת-כל. השנייה מכירה ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: להיות או לא להיות: האם זו השאלה? תביעות נזיקין בגין "חיים בעוולה" כטעות קונספטואלית
To be or not to be: Is that the Question? Wrongful Life Claims as a Conceptual Error
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3177240 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: תביעה בגין "חיים בעוולה" היא תביעת נזיקין של קטין שנולד עם מום נגד אדם שמחמת התרשלותו הגיע אותו הקטין לאוויר העולם. ההנחה העומדת בבסיס התביעה היא שלולא ההתרשלות לא היה התובע נולד כלל, מכיוון שבלעדי ההתרשלות לא הייתה אמו מתעברת או שההריון היה מסתיים בהפלה. בפרשת זייצוב נ' כץ פסק בית המשפט העליון כי אדם שנולד לחיי-סבל יוכל לתבוע בנזיקין את מי שגרם להולדתו בהתנהגות רשלנית. חלקו הראשון של המאמר מראה כי עילת התביעה של "חיים בעוולה" אינה מוכרת במרבית שיטות המשפט המערביות, ומצדיק את הרתיעה האוניברסלית מהכרה בעילה זו במונחים קונספטואליים. חלקו השני של המאמר מציע לזכות את הקטין בפיצוי תוך שימוש במסגרת מושגית אלטרנטיבית המצויה מחוץ לגבולות דיני הנזיקין, ובכך לעקוף את הכשל המושגי הטבוע בעילת התביעה המפוקפקת של "חיים בעוולה".

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: תפסת מרובה לא תפסת: על העצמה באמצעות דיני הנזיקין
Plurima Conantes Prendere, Pauca Ferunt: Empowerment Through Tort Law
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3177395 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: בשנים האחרונות נדרשו בתי משפט בישראל כמה וכמה פעמים לתביעות נזיקין של מסורבות גט כנגד בני-זוגן. בקשות למחיקתן על הסף של תביעות כגון דא בתואנה של העדר-עילה נדחו בזו אחר זו. בשלהי שנת 2004 אף נתקבלה – לראשונה בישראל – תביעה של מסורבת גט כנגד בן-זוגה. התובעת זכתה בפיצוי בסך 325,000 ש"ח בגין נזק לא-ממוני שנגרם לה במשך תשעה עשר וחצי חודשי סרבנות, ולסכום זה הצטרף תשלום עונשי בסך 100,000 ש"ח. מיד לאחר שניתן פסק הדין מסרה באת-כוח התובעת לעיתונאים כי "הפסיקה... מעניקה לנשים קלף מיקוח חשוב במשא ומתן על גירושים... חשוב שבעלים ידעו מעכשיו שהם ישלמו על כל יום שהם מסרבים למלא פסק דין שמחייב אותם לתת גט". תביעת הנזיקין נחזית אפוא, לכאורה, כמכשיר להעצמתן של מסורבות גט: מכשיר רב-עוצמה שמסורבת הגט רשאית לעשות בו שימוש כראות עיניה לשם הפעלת לחץ על בן-זוגה הסורר. אנו סבורים, לעומת זאת, כי שימוש בלתי מרוסן בדיני הנזיקין עלול, בחשבון סופי, להסב נזק לעניינן של מסורבות גט, וכי משום כך יש לבכר מודל נזיקי מחושב ומבוקר המבטיח להן העצמה ממשית לטווח הארוך.

בפרק ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: על חוסר העקביות בפסיקת פיצויים בגין קיצור תוחלת חיים
The Inconsistent Perception of Recovery for Loss of Life Expectancy
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3177263 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: המאמר טוען שקיימת סתירה בין הרציונל העיוני המקובל בישראל לפסיקת הפיצוי בגין קיצור תוחלת חיים, לבין האופן שבו קובעים בתי-המשפט בפועל את גובה הפיצוי בראש נזק זה. לפי התפיסה הרווחת מדובר בראש נזק אובייקטיבי, דהיינו: ראש נזק המתייחס לעצם הפגיעה ב"נכס" בעל ערך אובייקטיבי ולא לתחושה הסובייקטיבית של הניזוק בעקבות הפגיעה. לעומת זאת הפרקטיקה המקובלת בפסיקת הפיצויים מעידה על כך שהוא נתפס כראש נזק מעורב (המשלב רכיב אובייקטיבי עם רכיב סובייקטיבי).

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: על סיכון, ביטוח וחוזי ביטוח
Risk, Insurance, and Insurance Contracts
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3177273 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: ביטוח פירושו התגוננות בפני סיכון שלא על ידי הקטנתו. אין זו הגדרה מילונית ואף לא הגדרה משפטית, אולם זוהי, לטעמי, ההגדרה היחידה שהיא רחבה די הצורך כדי להקיף את כל ההסדרים המכונים "ביטוחיים" בשפת היום-יום ובספרות המדעית, וצרה דיה כדי לא לכלול הסדרים שאינם "ביטוחיים". אחד מסוגי הביטוח הנפוצים והמוכרים ביותר בעת החדשה הוא חוזה הביטוח, אשר יוגדר כאן כעסקה שבה מועבר סיכון, תמורת סכום שנקבע מראש, מאדם שונא סיכון (המבוטח) לישות הנושאת בתוצאות מימושם של סיכונים במסגרת פעילותה הרגילה מתוך מאגר פיננסי שנוצר על ידי התקשרות דומה עם מספר גדול של מבוטחים. סוג זה של ביטוח מוסדר אצלנו, אם כי לא באופן בלעדי, בחוק חוזה הביטוח (להלן: החוק).

ספרו החדש של שחר ולר על חוק חוזה הביטוח מצטרף לסדרה מכובדת של פירושים לחוקי החוזים מיסודו של פרופ' טדסקי המנוח. פירוש ראשון לחוק אמנם נכתב על ידי פרופ' ידין לפני יותר מעשרים שנה, זמן קצר לאחר חקיקתו; אולם אין כל ספק שלנוכח הצטברות הפסיקה והעמקת ההבנה העיונית של הנושא המוסדר בחוק נוצר צורך ברענון. מעיון בתוכנו של הספר עב ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: ההיררכיה הנורמטיבית של פקודות הצבא: עיון נוסף בבג"ץ 652/93 שמואלי נ' שר הביטחון
The Normative Hierarchy of General Military Orders: A Reevaluation of the Shmueli Case
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3177381 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: בפרשת שמואלי דן בית המשפט העליון בשאלת היחס בין חוזר מזכירות הפיקוד העליון לבין הוראת הפיקוד העליון. לכאורה, מדובר בשאלה פשוטה, שהוכרעה באופן חד משמעי בסעיף 3(ב) לחוק השיפוט הצבאי. אלא שבית המשפט סבר אחרת: "הנה כי כן, מעמדו של חוזר מפ"ע הוא כשל פקודה כללית אחרת, וככזה אין הוא יכול לסתור פקודת מטכ"ל או הפ"ע, זולת אם הוא בא 'לתת פרסום מוקדם ותוקף, במידת הצורך, לפקודות הצבא העתידות להתפרסם'. כי אז אין סתירה מהותית בין השניים, ויש לראות את חוזר מפ"ע כבא לקבוע זמנית, ובנוהל מזורז, נורמה אחרת מזו שבהפ"ע, ובלבד שתהא כפופה להחלטת הרמטכ"ל ואישור שר הבטחון."

מסקנתו העיקרית של בית המשפט העליון בעניין שמואלי, שלפיה יש בכוחם של חוזרי מזכירות הפיקוד העליון לגבור על הוראות הפיקוד העליון אינה מתיישבת עם הוראתו המפורשת של סעיף 3(ב) לחוק השיפוט הצבאי, הקובע את ההיררכיה בין פקודות הצבא השונות. הדרישה לאישור של שר הבטחון להוצאת חוזר מזכירות הפיקוד העליון (שבית המשפט נזקק לה בעקבות הקביעה הבעייתית הראשונה) נטולת כל בסיס בחוק או בהוראת הפיקוד העליון 1.0105, ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: להיות או לא להיות? זו כבר אינה השאלה
To Be or Not to Be? That is No Longer the Question
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180377 (May 31, 2018)

תקציר בעברית: בפרשת זייצוב הכיר בית המשפט העליון ברוב-דעות בעילה של חיים בעוולה, המאפשרת לילד בעל מוגבלות לתבוע את מי שהתרשלותו גרמה להולדת התובע, אך לא למוגבלות עצמה. ברם, שופטי הרוב לא הגיעו להסכמה בדבר גבולותיה של העילה והותירו שתי שאלות יסודיות בלא מענה קונקלוסיבי. הייתה זו תולדה מובנת של הניסיון לדון בזכויות הילד במסגרת המושגית המסורתית של דיני הנזיקין. בנוסף לכך הכיר בית המשפט פה-אחד בעילת התביעה של ההורים בגין הולדה בעוולה באותן הנסיבות. קביעת הרכב מורחב לדיון מחודש בשני סוגי התביעות והקמת ועדת מומחים רב-תחומית לגיבוש המלצות בנושא יצרו ציפייה לרפורמה. ואמנם, בפסק הדין בעניין המר קבע בית המשפט העליון כללי משחק חדשים: העילה של חיים בעוולה בוטלה, והעילה של הולדה בעוולה אושררה והורחבה.

רשימה זו בוחנת מזווית ביקורתית את עיקרי פסק-הדין בעניין המר. פרק א מציג את הרקע להחלטה ובכך מדגיש את חשיבותה: הוא מזכיר את המחלוקת בין שופטי הרוב בפרשת זייצוב ומסביר את הכשלים העיוניים בכל אחת מהגישות ואת ההשלכות המעשיות של אי-ההכרעה ביניהן. פרק ב מתאר את ההליך ...

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Tort Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180589 (May 30, 2018)

This book chapter systematically analyzes the fundamental principles of Israeli tort law. Given space limits it focuses on core areas, and does not profess to be comprehensive. Part II discusses fault based liability—intentional torts, negligence, and presumptions of negligence. Part III examines strict liability, including the special regimes pertaining to road accidents, defective products, and defamation, and the general tort of breach of statutory duty. Part IV discusses general defenses—particularly those deriving from the plaintiff’s fault or consent, and the special defenses afforded to the state, public authorities, and civil servants. Part V explains how the bilateral wrongdoer-victim model has been extended by allowing claims against or by third parties. Part VI examines the available remedies.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Legal Instinct: Lawmaking as a Branch of Biolaw, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3099338 (May 27, 2018)

In her 2017 book, Rules for a Flat World, Gillian Hadfield upbraids the legal profession and the legal academy for ascribing supremacy, even exclusivity, to traditional legal institutions. Legal infrastructure, especially in the poorest countries, depends on entrepreneurs willing to shatter these myths. Hadfield prescribes possible solutions to the problem of inspiring and fostering entrepreneurship for legal infrastructure. This review essay describes how Rules for a Flat World envisions the reinvention of markets for legal rules and institutions in the image of Silicon Valley startups. This essay also describes humans’ intrinsic longing for social ordering and dispute resolution. If the legal instinct is biologically based and mediated, then lawmaking should be evaluated as a branch of biolaw.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Israel (2012 Report), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2494559 (May 20, 2018)

This is the Israeli report to the Tort and Insurance Law Yearbook. It critically evaluates notable developments which took place in Israeli tort law in 2012. Part A discusses legislation and legislative bills in various areas, including state liability, compensation and assistance following the cancellation of a flight or a change in its conditions, road accidents victims' compensation, and disclosure of internet user information in tort litigation. Part B discusses 2012 Supreme Court decisions on wrongful life and wrongful birth, the truth defense in defamation law, the evidentiary weight of acquittal in a criminal procedure, the applicability of the contributory negligence defense in an action for deceit, the interrelation between tort law and property law, a tort-based duty to disclose an anonymous user's identity, and the scope of the medical duty to disclose information. Part B also analyzes recent developments concerning a uniquely Israeli head of damages - "infringement of ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Israel (2011 Report), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2163130 (May 20, 2018)

This is a pre-edited draft of the Israeli report to the Tort and Insurance Law Yearbook. Because the last Israeli report was published in the 2002 Yearbook, this chapter covers a longer than usual period of time. It critically evaluates notable developments in Israeli tort law. The first Part focuses on recent and proposed legislative reforms. It discusses, inter alia, the proposed Israeli Civil Code, tort liability of the state, public authorities, and public servants, environmental legislation, dignitary torts (infringement of privacy, defamation), and the Prevention of Harm to the State of Israel through Boycott Act. The second Part discusses notable developments in case law under the following headings: the interplay between tort law and criminal law, defamation, liability for relational losses (economic and emotional), causation, exceptions to the rule of restitutio in integrum, and damages for personal injuries. The third Part reviews important contributions to Israeli tort law ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Crowdfunding Civil Justice, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3041129 (May 20, 2018)

Crowdfunding—the aggregation of numerous but modest individual contributions through specialized online platforms—is a relatively new finance method. In the last few years, it has started its incursion into the realm of civil litigation funding. Three unrelated events, which took place in different jurisdictions in 2017, demonstrate this evolving trend and its potential impact. In the United States, the Southern Poverty Law Center included the political activist Maajid Nawaz on a list of “anti-Muslim extremists.” Nawaz launched an independent campaign for crowdfunding a defamation action against the organization. In the United Kingdom, a wildlife protection organization brought a defamation action against Andy Wightman, a Member of the Scottish Parliament, over his blog posts about the plaintiff’s practices. Wightman raised more than £60,000 through a British crowdfunding platform to fight this lawsuit. In Israel, the acclaimed journalist Igal Sarna was found liable in defamation for ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Income-Dependent Punitive Damages, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2938364 (May 20, 2018)

Punitive damages have been very salient in the media, preoccupied appellate courts, and fascinated scholars for decades. But although their availability seems undisputed in most common law jurisdictions, their measure remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether and how courts and juries should take the defendant’s financial condition into account in assessing punitive damages. The Article puts forward and defends an innovative yet simple method for incorporating this factor into the calculation. Our proposal is based on an adaptation of a criminal law model, known as “day-fines,” which has been primarily used in European and Latin-American legal systems. In brief, if the gravity of the wrong seems to justify an extra-compensatory award, the scope of punitive damages will be determined in several steps. First, the court must determine the gravity of the wrong and translate it into corresponding “severity units.” Next, the court must assess the “unit value”—the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Strike-Out, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2772053 (May 20, 2018)

The article provides a structured efficiency-oriented response to a highly important question which has been neglected by scholars for decades: should employees and their labor union, involved in a strike against a particular employer, be liable for ensuing third-party harms? Assume, for example, that the Albuquerque firefighters stage a strike for a wage increase. Just then, a fire breaks out and destroys an industrial laundry facility and a surreptitious underground workshop, causing temporary evacuation of adjacent businesses. Should the proprietors have a cause of action against the strikers for property damage and economic loss? The article puts forward a novel framework for assessing third-party claims, incorporating two fundamental principles. Under the first, which I call “the principle of deference,” tort law should not normally undermine a specific legal regime governing the allocation of power in the concrete case, particularly if the applicable regime has been ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: 'He Said, She Said,' With A Twist, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2097522 (May 20, 2018)

Many studies have explored the effect of judges’ characteristics, such as gender or ethnicity, on their own decisions and perceptions. For example, some studies focused on the relationship between judges’ gender and their judgments on sexually based offenses. None has studied whether such characteristics affect people’s perceptions of the judgments. This question is important, inter alia, because the frequently heard argument that the judiciary must be ‘representative’ or ‘reflective of society’ is often linked to the assumption that representation increases public trust in the judiciary. Representation leads to trust only if members of a specific group have a greater trust in other members of the same group. Alas, empirical studies have not yet examined whether trust is actually dependent on judges’ identities. It this article, we wish to study whether men and women perceive judgments concerning gender-charged events differently, especially in view of the judge’s gender. More ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Who Should Be Liable for Online Anonymous Defamation?, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2671399 (May 20, 2018)

The paper discusses the question of liability for online anonymous defamation. Its main theoretical contribution lies in recognizing that the legal response to online anonymous defamation should be viewed and analyzed as a combination of two components. The first is the ability (or inability) to bring an action against the platform enabling the defamatory statement, which we call “the content provider.” Such an action may require modification of substantive law, namely recognition of some sort of indirect liability. The second component is the ability (or inability) to bring an action against the anonymous user, whom we call “the speaker.” Such an action does not require modification of substantive defamation law, but entails adaptation of procedural law, namely establishing a de-anonymization process. Because this framework provides two potential defendants, and each can be either liable or non-liable, there seem to be four possible liability regimes: (1) neither the speaker nor the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Getting Incentives Righter, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2660317 (May 20, 2018)

This book review critically evaluates Robert Cooter & Ariel Porat's "Getting Incentives Right" (Princeton University Press, 2014). The review makes four general arguments, each addresses the book from a different angle. First, the book provides universally applicable theoretical insights, but limits the critical evaluation of existing law, and the consequent reform proposals, to the United States. It thereby gives up accuracy, vigor, and audience. While this observation applies to the entire book, I provide several examples for the possible benefits of a comparative legal perspective. Second, C&P seem to miss problematic incentives that implementing their proposals might entail. Specifically, some of the most innovative proposals for reform involve upward or downward adjustments of the scope of damages for the purpose of securing injurers' (and sometimes also victims') efficient conduct. I show that in adjusting damages to properly incentivize injurers, these reforms may also ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Pluralistic Legal Theories: In Search of a Common Denominator, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2601591 (May 20, 2018)

This Essay embarks on a meta-theoretical project to provide a unifying philosophical framework for pluralistic legal theories. Put differently, it seeks to identify a structural common denominator for all pluralistic theories of law, with a particular emphasis on private law (torts and contracts). The Essay first rejects the notion of complementarity coined by Nobel Prize laureate Niels Bohr, and applied to legal theory by Izhak Englard. It then advocates the allegedly Thomist aphorism hominem unius libri timeo (“I fear the man of a single book”), and connects it to Isaiah Berlin’s renowned distinction between the hedgehog and the fox.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Taking Turns, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2589830 (May 20, 2018)

Two siblings jointly inherit their late father’s rocking chair. The chair has principally sentimental and no real economic value; it cannot be physically divided between them, and selling it to distribute the proceeds will compensate neither for the sentimental loss. What, then, should become of the disputed property? In a self-confessed “strange” decision in the McDowell case, the Surrogate’s Court of New York ordered that the two siblings take possession of the chair alternately for six-month periods; and that when one passed away, the other would obtain exclusive possession. An allocation method based on alternating enjoyment (or suffering) is commonly known as “rotation,” or more colloquially “taking turns.” Yet despite its manifestation in different legal contexts, and its considerable potential, rotation has been almost neglected by legal theorists. This Article makes the first attempt to delineate and exemplify the proper boundaries of this method’s utilization by and under ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Liability for Online Anonymous Speech: Comparative and Economic Analyses, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2448706 (May 20, 2018)

This is a pre-edited draft of of an article presented in the special session of the Annual Conference on European Tort Law. The article examines various models for handling the problem of online anonymous defamation from comparative and economic perspectives. The comparative analysis reveals four main paradigms. The US model bars content providers’ indirect liability, but facilitates identification of the speaker. The Israeli model recognises content providers’ fault-based liability but does not provide procedural tools for identifying the speaker. The EU framework enables the victim to request identification of the speaker, and at the same time bring an action against the content provider. Although there is variance among Member States, this model seems to comply with the relevant Directives and European court decisions. The recently-adopted English model (‘residual indirect liability’) enables the victim to pursue a claim against the speaker and, if the speaker is unavailable, ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: 'May the Odds Be Ever in Your Favor': Lotteries in Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2494550 (May 20, 2018)

Throughout history, lotteries have been used in numerous legal contexts. However, legal theorists have rarely discussed the role of randomization in law, and have never done so systematically and comprehensively. Against this backdrop, the Article has three underlying goals. First, it fills the aforementioned gap by providing a theoretical framework for assessing lotteries’ role in legal resource allocation. It innovatively integrates fairness and efficiency concerns, critically evaluating and applying insights from various disciplines, including economics, philosophy, political science, psychology, and theology. This multidisciplinary framework — of unprecedented breadth and complexity — provides lawyers and policymakers with a powerful analytical tool for assessing the possible use of random allocation schemes. Second, the Article recognizes the importance and highlights the pervasiveness of lotteries in law. It does so by analyzing and appraising the historical and present role of ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Imbalances of Power in ADR: The Impact of Representation and Dispute Resolution Method on Case Outcomes, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2343083 (May 20, 2018)

In recent decades, Alternative Dispute Resolution processes have gained worldwide recognition, a growing role in legal practice, and academic attention. Despite their professed advantages they have also faced fierce opposition. In a seminal article, Owen Fiss argued that ADR exacerbates imbalances of power between the parties. But while the theoretical argument has been widely discussed and developed in academic literature, empirical evidence has remained scant. This Article purports to bridge the gap. It empirically examines the impact of two seemingly relevant factors in inherently imbalanced legal disputes: representation and dispute resolution method. Arguably, professional representation of weaker parties may reduce the effects of inequality, whereas less formal, transparent and adjudicatory processes may exacerbate them. The Article focuses on small claims settlement conferences, using the Israeli labor courts system as a test case. It examines the impact of representation on ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: A Group's a Group, No Matter How Small: An Economic Analysis of Defamation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2277697 (May 20, 2018)

Consider the following case (Jews for Jesus, Inc. v. Rapp, 997 So.2d 1098, 1101 (Fla. 2008)): A Jews-for-Jesus bulletin publishes a report, falsely implying that a Jewish woman became "a believer in the tenets, the actions, and the philosophy of Jews for Jesus." Does this publication constitute defamation? What makes a statement defamatory? Should defamatoriness be determined in accordance with the views of the general non-Jewish community, with those of the Jewish minority, or with a normative ethical commitment? Our Article aims to provide the answers. Part I demonstrates that the definition of defamatoriness in common law jurisdictions is essentially empirical, and distinguishes between the two leading tests — the English test and the American test. Section A shows that English courts have embraced the general community test, whereby a statement is defamatory if considered so by the public at large. The traditional English test, which relies on empirical observations, at least ...


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