Jurisdynamics Network authors on SSRN

This page summarizes the most recent SSRN abstracts posted by the authors of the Jurisdynamics Network. The Network's authors are serious, productive scholars as well as stimulating bloggers, and we hope you will read and download these papers. This page has its own RSS feed, which you are invited to download by clicking here:  . To receive updates as these authors post new scholarship, please use the following form:

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%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: The Second Transformation of the International Intellectual Property Regime, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3481553 (November 7, 2019)

A quarter-century ago, the adoption of the TRIPS Agreement and the marriage of intellectual property and trade through the WTO transformed the international intellectual property regime. This Agreement ushered in not only new international minimum standards for protecting and enforcing intellectual property rights but also major changes to domestic intellectual property systems from across the world.

Today, the international intellectual property regime is being transformed once again. Thanks to the proliferation of bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade and investment agreements, new international minimum standards are now being developed to protect the investment-related aspects of intellectual property rights. Unlike the WTO, which provides for only state-to-state dispute settlement, the investor-state dispute settlement mechanism built into these newly adopted international agreements enables private investors, such as intellectual property rights holders, to sue ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: First Amendment (Un)Exceptionalism: A Comparative Taxonomy of Campaign Finance Reform Proposals in the US and UK, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3475526 (November 4, 2019)

There is an urgent conversation happening among the world’s democracies about how to respond to the combined threat of online electioneering and foreign interference in domestic elections. Despite the shadow such activities cast over the 2016 presidential election in the United States, the US has been largely absent from comparative discussions about how to tackle the problem. This is not just because of a recalcitrant president. The assumption that America’s “First Amendment Exceptionalism” – the idea that American freedom of expression law is simply too much of an outlier to warrant useful comparative consideration – is strong on both sides of the Atlantic. This is especially true in regard to the regulation of political campaigns.

This article challenges that assumption, and argues that America’s more libertarian approach to the legal regulation of political speech does not pose a barrier to fruitful comparative work in this area. It does so by comparing the law of the US ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Internet of Bodies, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3452891 (November 4, 2019)

This Article introduces the ongoing progression of the Internet of Things (IoT) into the Internet of Bodies (IoB)—a network of human bodies whose integrity and functionality rely at least in part on the Internet and related technologies, such as artificial intelligence. IoB devices will evidence the same categories of legacy security flaws that have plagued IoT devices. However, unlike most IoT, IoB technologies will directly, physically harm human bodies—a set of harms courts, legislators, and regulators will deem worthy of legal redress. As such, IoB will herald the arrival of (some forms of) corporate software liability and a new legal and policy battle over the integrity of the human body and mind. Framing this integrity battle in light of current regulatory approaches, this Article offers a set of specific innovation-sensitive proposals to bolster corporate conduct safeguards through regulatory agency action, contract, tort, intellectual property, and secured ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Environmental Law at the Borders, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3471310 (October 28, 2019)

This brief essay provides the legal background of two border projects generating intense environmental controversy--the Project XL pipeline border-crossing permit and the so-called border wall. In both contexts the law affords the Executive Branch a surprising degree of discretion and near-total freedom from environmental regulation. The litigation that has continued since this essay was written thus far confirms that "environmental law at the borders" is remarkably thin in these two contexts.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: What Is Habitat?, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3471285 (October 28, 2019)

This short essay summarizes and assesses the recent Supreme Court opinion in Weyerhaeuser v U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, which involved a landowner challenge to FWS's decision to designate an area of land as "critical habitat" under the Endangered Species Act notwithstanding the area could support the species in question only after significant habitat restoration. The ESA allows unoccupied areas to be designated as critical habitat, but is silent on the question of unoccupiable but restorable habitat. Rather than reach that question, the Court ruled that it must first be determined than an area is a species' "habitat" before it can be designated as critical habitat, a finding that neither the FWS nor the lower courts made. Yet, neither the statute, FWS regulations and policies, nor case law define "habitat" for purposes of the ESA. The essay closes with suggestions for doing so.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Governing Cascade Failures in Complex Social-Ecological-Technological Systems: Framing Context, Strategies, and Challenges, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3471945 (October 28, 2019)

Systems fail, and bigger, faster, more powerful and complex systems cause bigger, faster, more powerful and complex failures. Power grid blackouts have long attracted attention to cascade failure in technological systems; the 2008 financial collapse put a spotlight on cascade failure in economic systems; climate change threatens cascade failure in ecological systems triggering cascade failure in human systems; cyber attacks and the sense that social media platforms are out of control are the new cascade failure policy concerns. These are not independent phenomena—they are interdependently embedded in and cascading through large-scale social-ecological-technological systems (SETS). As such, they are not independent governance propositions either; rather, they go to the essence of how policies can build resilience into SETS while balancing the systemic risk that comes with bigger, faster, more powerful and complex systems.

Governing systemic risk to cascade failure in SETS thus ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Ecosystem Services and Federal Lands: A Quiet Revolution in Public Lands Management, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3471445 (October 27, 2019)

The major federal public land management agencies (the Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Park Service, Fish & Wildlife Service, and Department of Defense) have increasingly adopted a language that did not exist twenty-five years ago—the language of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are the range of benefits that ecological resources provide to humans, from water purification and pollination to carbon sequestration and wildlife habitat. The scientific discipline advancing the ecosystem services framework arose in the mid-1990s and quickly became a central strategy for fusing ecological and economics research. Despite its ascendance in research communities, the recognition and conservation of ecosystem services in law and policy has been a more gradual, incremental process. While largely unrecognized, the federal public land management agencies have been embedding consideration of ecosystem services in their policy decision making. Looking back, it is remarkable how ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Ranking Legal Publications: The Israeli Inter-University Committee Report, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3422168 (October 25, 2019)

The Report offers a global ranking of academic legal publications, covering more than 900 outlets, and using a four-tier categorization. The ranking is based on a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology. The Report was composed in the context of the Israeli academic system, but the methodology and the results are not jurisdiction-specific.

Evaluating academic publications is a never-ending challenge. Such evaluation is an integral part of internal hiring, promotion, and tenure procedures, and of external funding decisions and institutional rankings. The proper way to evaluate academic publications has been the subject of fierce debate. The traditional method for academic evaluation is specific review of each publication, assessing its originality, rigor, and significance. This method, known as "peer-review", is often difficult to perform and might be subjective and biased. These concerns have generated an increased interest in the use of quantitative indicators in ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Environmental Law. Disrupted, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3308550 (October 24, 2019)

The U.S. regulatory environment is changing rapidly, at the same time that visible and profound impacts of climate change are already being felt throughout the world, and enormous, potentially existential threats loom in the not-so-distant future. What does it mean to think about and practice environmental law in this setting? In this latest in a biannual series of postings and essays, the authors, members of the Environmental Law Collaborative (ELC), have taken on the question of whether environmental law as we currently know it is up to the job of addressing these threats; and, if not, what the path forward should be.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Challenges to the Development of a Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2517854 (October 23, 2019)

Since the establishment of the WTO TRIPS Agreement, government officials, international intergovernmental organizations, civil society groups, judges, academic commentators and the media have focused considerable attention on the interplay of intellectual property and human rights. In the mid-2000s, scholars have begun advocating the development of a human rights framework for intellectual property law and policy. As I pointed out in earlier works, such a framework will not only be socially beneficial, but will also enable countries to develop a balanced intellectual property system that takes international human rights obligations into consideration.

While the development of a human rights framework for intellectual property is important, skeptics have warned about the danger of an "arranged marriage" between intellectual property and human rights. Although their concerns are understandable, it may be too late to deny the protection of human rights-based interests in ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Caught in the Middle: WIPO and Emerging Economies, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3464171 (October 10, 2019)

When the World Intellectual Property Organization was established in April 1970--with its origins tracing back to the adoption of the WIPO Convention in July 1967--the organization was at the center of a deeply divisive debate between developed and developing countries over the appropriate design of the international intellectual property system. A few years later, WIPO became a U.N. specialized agency. With the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, it coauthored the report entitled The Role of the Patent System in the Transfer of Technology to Developing Countries. The report’s pro-development views contrasted significantly with the traditional positions taken by WIPO and its predecessor. Those positions closely aligned with the views of inventors and their supportive developed countries.

More than five decades after the adoption of the WIPO Convention, the North-South divide continued to dominate debates ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Total Scholarly Impact: Law Professor Citations in Non-Law Journals, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3451542 (October 8, 2019)

This Article provides the first ranking of legal scholars and law faculties based on citations in non-law journals. Applying the methods, as much as possible, of the widely used Leiter-Sisk “Scholarly Impact Score,” which includes only citations in law publications, we calculate a “Interdisciplinary Scholarly Impact Score” from the non-law citations over a five-year period (2012-2018) to the work of tenured law faculty published in that period in non-law journals. We also provide the weighted scores for law faculty at the top 25 law schools as ranked by the US News rankings, a school-by-school ranking, and lists of the top five faculty by non-law citations at each school and of the top fifty scholars overall.

The work of legal scholars outside of law journals is not trivial. Over 600 faculty members from the 25 schools in our cohort published almost 3,000 articles in non-law journals from 2012-2018, and those articles received close to 21,000 citations in non-law journals. ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Aesthetic Judging and the Constitution (Or, Why Supreme Court Justices Are Less like Umpires, and More like Figure-Skating Judges), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3459021 (October 3, 2019)

This essay advances the claim that Supreme Court justices, especially in constitutional cases, are better analogized to judges in aesthetic sports, such as figure skating, than to the more familiar baseball umpire. The metaphor is descriptively stronger, in that both sets of actors make considerable use of unarticulated (and often inarticulable) norms and internalized conceptual knowledge in addition to the formal rules governing their respective domains, in that it accounts for the significance of acculturation in the acquisition of those norms and that knowledge, and in that it provides an account of how a system such as constitutional law can evolve apart from (and even without) changes to the formal rules. Finally, the metaphor serves as a useful caution. Figure skating judges, after all, do not enjoy a reputation for probity. Conceiving of the justices in those terms thus invites consideration of the sorts of factors that might lead to crisis in either context, an exercise that ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: After Agrarian Virtue, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3449558 (October 2, 2019)

What constitutes agrarian virtue? Across human or even geological history, agrarian virtue subsists in the sustained production of food, fiber, and fuel without the exhaustion of finite resources or the undue disruption of evolutionary processes on which human survival depends. Contemporary agricultural law, however, often emphasizes the expressive self-actualization of food preferences. This natural sublimation of economic independence from producers to consumers epitomizes agrarian vice. Restoration of agrarian virtue demands not telos (τέλος) in its purposive sense, but rather acceptance of kyklos (κύκλος), or cyclicality in its full economic and ecological sense.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: The Algorithmic Divide and Equality in the Age of Artificial Intelligence, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3455772 (September 25, 2019)

In the age of artificial intelligence, highly sophisticated algorithms have been deployed to detect patterns, optimize solutions, facilitate self-learning, and foster improvements in technological products and services. Notwithstanding these tremendous benefits, algorithms and intelligent machines do not provide equal benefits to all. Just as the digital divide has separated those with access to the Internet, information technology, and digital content from those without, an emerging and ever-widening algorithmic divide now threatens to take away the many political, social, economic, cultural, educational, and career opportunities provided by machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Although policymakers, commentators, and the mass media have paid growing attention to algorithmic bias and the shortcomings of machine learning and artificial intelligence, the algorithmic divide has yet to attract much policy and scholarly attention. To fill this lacuna, this article draws ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: American Idols, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3458553 (September 24, 2019)

In 2001 and 2009 we conducted an online survey of environmental law professionals, asking them to list their ten "most significant" environmental law cases. We repeated the survey in 2019. Our key finding was there has been no real shift of the most important cases since 2009. Apart from minor moves up and down, five of the top six cases were unchanged. Since the 2001 survey, four cases have remained in the top ten. Not a single recent case made the top ten. We explain why certain cases have come and gone, and why the canon of cases such as Chevron, TVA v. Hill, Rapanos, and Mass v. EPA have endured. Environmental law is now a mature field. While change is always a constant, we expect most of the classics to remain the most significant cases when we conduct the next survey in 2029.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Why Environmental Zero-Sum Games are Real, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3401601 (September 23, 2019)

Most environmental policies have winners and losers. That is one reason why it is such a contested terrain. One might argue that these policies benefit society overall, but it rarely feels like a benefit to the local resource-dependent communities or polluting industries and their employees. Indeed, just as the environmental justice movement emphasizes protection of local communities from the harms of broader economic interests, the zero-sum tension in regulatory contexts is most salient when the winners are geographically diffuse and the losers are locally concentrated. The difference, of course, is that environmental policy increasingly is coming to the rescue of the local community in the case of environmental justice, whereas it can be the agent of locally concentrated economic harm in the case of environmental regulation. The local community of losers in those cases sense that they are trapped in a zero-sum conflict where they need to stand their ground against distant opposing ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Broken, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3452930 (September 20, 2019)

This article argues that the CFAA as currently written is unsalvageable and requires a rewrite of its core provisions. Shifting paradigms to an approach driven by principles from computer security and epidemiology theory, this Article offers an attempted rewrite of the CFAA in a manner more attuned to the current security reality.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Cyber Harder, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3452936 (September 20, 2019)

The predecessor article to this essay, CYBER!, offered a fresh approach to security – the paradigm of reciprocal security. This essay continues where CYBER! concluded and offers elaborations on concrete policy suggestions for charting a new course for security in both the public and private sectors. It offers implementation suggestions for the five sets of security policy proposals arising from the reciprocal security paradigm advocated by CYBER!
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: CYBER!, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3452934 (September 20, 2019)

This Article challenges the basic assumptions of the emerging legal area of “cyber” or “cybersecurity.” It argues that the two dominant “cybersecurity” paradigms—information sharing and deterrence—fail to recognize that corporate information security and national “cybersecurity” concerns are inextricable. This problem of “reciprocal security vulnerability” means that in practice our current legal paradigms channel us in suboptimal directions. Drawing insights from the work of philosopher of science Michael Polanyi, this Article identifies three flaws that pervade the academic and policy analysis of security, exacerbating the problem of reciprocal security vulnerability—privacy conflation, incommensurability, and internet exceptionalism. It then offers a new paradigm—reciprocal security. Reciprocal security reframes information security law and policy as part of broader security policy, focusing on two key elements: security vigilance infrastructure and defense primacy. The Article ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Roman Public Trust Doctrine: What Was It, and Does It Support an Atmospheric Trust?, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3440244 (September 16, 2019)

Through building waves of legal scholarship and litigation, a group of legal academics and practitioners is advancing a theory of the public trust doctrine styled as the “atmospheric trust.” The atmospheric trust would require the federal and state governments to regulate public and private actors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions so as to abate climate change. The traditional common law version of the American public trust doctrine requires the states to hold title to lands submerged under navigable waters in trust for the public to use for navigation, fishing, and commerce, and that the states not alienate such resources to the detriment of this public interest. Some states have incrementally expanded the public trust doctrine to other resources and other uses, but thus far no federal or state court of last resort has adopted anything like the atmospheric trust.

Advocates of the atmospheric trust argue that it, like the traditional doctrine, enjoys a pedigree that traces ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The RCEP Negotiations and Asian Intellectual Property Norm Setters, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3229057 (September 9, 2019)

This chapter closely examines the negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Asian countries' recent efforts to set regional intellectual property norms. The RCEP negotiations are particularly important to Asian intellectual property developments because the RCEP remains the first and only mega-regional agreement that Asian countries have negotiated without the participation of either the European Union or the United States.

The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the evolution of the RCEP negotiations, noting the initial rivalry between the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the RCEP, the United States' withdrawal from the former and the adoption of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

The chapter then highlights the different intellectual property provisions in the draft RCEP intellectual property chapter, focusing on the four main branches of intellectual property law as well as ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: TRIPS and Its Contents, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3448332 (September 6, 2019)

In 2006, I published TRIPS and Its Discontents as part of a symposium commemorating the tenth anniversary of the TRIPS Agreement. At that time, developing countries were deeply discontent with the Agreement and the new and higher intellectual property standards that the WTO had imposed upon them. By contrast, when the TRIPS Agreement was about to celebrate its twenty-fifth anniversary earlier this year, the developing countries' trenchant critiques of the Agreement were mostly gone. Also disappearing were their usual accusations of coercion and neo-imperialism.

What has happened? Have developing countries successfully adjusted, or become sensitized, to the high intellectual property standards in the TRIPS Agreement? Have these countries and their supportive commentators and nongovernmental organizations become tired of criticizing the Agreement? Have developing countries and their supporters moved on to other more pressing issues in the areas of intellectual property and ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: China's Innovative Turn and the Changing Pharmaceutical Landscape, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3437632 (September 3, 2019)

For more than a decade, China has been the world's leading supplier of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Today, it has become not only the world's second largest pharmaceutical market, behind only the United States, but it also produces about four percent of the world's new pharmaceutical products. Despite these impressive accomplishments, China does not have internationally recognized pharmaceutical brands that are comparable to those found in Europe or the United States, such as Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Pfizer, Novartis, Roche, and Sanofi. Nor does China rival India in its status as the "pharmacy of the world," providing generic drugs to needy countries from around the world, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa.

Since the mid-2000s, China has taken an innovative turn that has serious ramifications for the global pharmaceutical landscape and future issues lying at the intersection of intellectual property and public health. To be sure, many policymakers and ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Fair Use and Its Global Paradigm Evolution, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3206464 (September 3, 2019)

Legal paradigms shift in response to political, economic, social, cultural and technological conditions. While these paradigms have moved from developed to developing countries, they rarely move in the opposite direction. Nevertheless, some transplants from developed countries do involve legal paradigms that align well with the needs, interests, conditions and priorities of developing countries. A case in point is the transplant of the fair use model in U.S. copyright law, which has attracted considerable debate, research and policy attention in the past few decades.

Because legal literature has thus far under-analyzed the transplant of the U.S. fair use model, this article focuses its analysis on fair use transplants. It begins by reviewing the literature concerning paradigm shift, in particular Thomas Kuhn’s seminal work. The article then documents a growing trend toward the worldwide adoption of the U.S. fair use model and a countertrend toward the retention of the status ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Biobanking, Scientific Productions and Human Rights, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3048140 (August 12, 2019)

Biobanks exist in many forms, sizes, designs and structures. They provide important benefits to humanity. Yet, they also raise serious concerns and complications, especially in the areas of privacy, autonomy and personal data protection. Because these concerns often implicate the rights of individual donors, biobank users, relevant family members and other individual third parties, a logical topic to explore is whether a violation of the rights of these individuals could rise to the level of a human right violation.

Commissioned for a book on the legal, ethical and scientific challenges in international biobanking, this chapter provides a brief survey on three distinct sets of human rights issues, all related to biobanks. The first set concerns the human rights involved in the collection, processing, use or storage of the biological materials collected by biobanks. The second set pertains to the human rights issues implicated by the development of scientific productions ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Comparative Lessons of Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v Russian Kurier, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3200860 (August 12, 2019)

For a large part of the past century, the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United States and Russia’s continued refusal to join the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the predominant international copyright agreement, have raised complicated questions concerning the protection of Russian authors in the United States. The case that has received considerable attention in intellectual property literature is Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v. Russian Kurier, Inc. Filed in the mid-1990s, shortly after Russia’s accession to the Berne Convention but before its admission to the World Trade Organization, this case covered not only choice-of-law questions in the intellectual property field but also the interrelationship between domestic law and international treaties. Less frequently explored, however, are the rich comparative lessons that the case has provided on the development of intellectual property law and policy in Central and Eastern ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Enabling Adaptive Governance: Defining the Role of Government in New Governance, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3432504 (August 8, 2019)

Regulation of landscape scale social-ecological systems is insufficient alone to navigate accelerating environmental change. In parallel with experimentation in new governance in the face of globalization, adaptive governance is emerging to address problems of scarcity and value-based conflict over use and preservation at the landscape scale. This paper explores how governance is evolving to address increasing complexity; why adaptive governance emerges in response to the inadequacy of existing governance at the landscape scale; the relation of adaptive governance to traditional regulatory and market approaches; and what legal reform is necessary to allow government to navigate among governance options to enhance the capacity of society to adapt to accelerating change. State assistance in building adaptive capacity, and capacity to itself adapt, accelerating change must complement traditional approaches to governance if society is to navigate accelerating environmental and social ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Correlation versus Causality: Further Thoughts on the Law Review/Law School Liaison, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=940892 (August 3, 2019)

This Essay is the third in a series of articles discussing the relative value of American law reviews, and a response to Professor Alfred Brophy's elaboration of my initial study of the high mathematical correlation between law review quality, as manifested in citation-based measures, and law school reputation. See The Relative Value of American Law Reviews: A Critical Appraisal of Ranking Methods, https://ssrn.com/abstract=806144; The Relative Value of American Law Reviews: Refinement and Implementation, https://ssrn.com/abstract=897063; and - Alfred L. Brophy, The Relationship between Law Review Citations and Law School Rankings, https://ssrn.com/abstract=868541.

Given my prior interest in the relative value of American law reviews, I have used the abovementioned correlation as a means to explain some of the variance in quality among ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: From Fault-Based to Strict Liability: A Case Study of an Overpraised Reform, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3094591 (July 22, 2019)

On September 25, 1976, the Israeli Road Accident Victims’ Compensation Act came into force. Prior to its enactment, road accident injuries were subject to the common law of torts, as codified in the Civil Wrongs Ordinance. The statutory reform was intended to achieve a social goal, namely securing prompt and satisfactory compensation to all road accident victims, including many who would not have been entitled to compensation otherwise. To this end, the legislature abolished fault, both as a basis for and as a defense against liability, expanded mandatory insurance, and established the Road Accident Victims’ Compensation Fund as a residual compensation mechanism. Two secondary goals of this socially motivated reform were extensive loss-spreading and reduction in court congestion and administrative costs. The article provides a critical evaluation of the common perception of this legislation. It challenges the Act’s claims to fame, demonstrating that the changes it was intended to ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Legal Analytics, Social Science, and Legal Fees: Reimagining 'Legal Spend' Decisions in an Evolving Industry, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3418465 (July 12, 2019)

This paper discusses how legal analytics can help law firms and clients understand, monitor, and improve the components that comprise bills for legal fees and expenses.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Reforming 'Regulatory Reform': A Progressive Framework for Agency Rulemaking in the Public Interest, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3416544 (July 9, 2019)

For over three decades, “regulatory reform” has been an aspiration chiefly for opponents of regulation. “Better regulation” is a goal nearly everyone would embrace. But changes in the federal administrative process since the 1980s have frequently had the foreseeable, and often intended, effect of hindering efforts to protect the environment, public health, civil rights, and other well-established public interest goals. This Issue Brief envisions what regulatory reform could look like from a different direction, focusing specifically on administrative rulemaking, the primary target of contemporary law reform efforts. The authors ask, what if reformers started with full recognition of the value of administrative regulation in the public interest? Beyond any specific substantive agenda, it is worth exploring whether there are potential changes in agency process and in the oversight of agencies that would improve the administrative state. Are there changes that could make regulation more ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Adaptive Management for Ecosystem Services at the Wildland-Urban Interface, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3407579 (June 28, 2019)

Managing the wildland-urban interface (WUI) is a widely-recognized land use problem plagued by a fractured geography of land parcels, management jurisdictions, and governance mandates and objectives. People who work in this field have suggested a variety of approaches to managing this interface, from informal governance to contracting to insurance. To date, however, none of these scholars have fully embraced the dynamism, uncertainty, and complexity of the WUI — that is, its status as a complex adaptive system. In focusing almost exclusively on the management of this interface to control wildfire, this scholarship largely ignores the factor that rampant wildfire is itself the product of incursions into important ecosystem services on both sides of the interface. In many cases, people tend to expand out towards the wildland not just for economics (cheaper housing) but also because of a suite of ecosystem services that are readily accessible at the interface, including aesthetics, a ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: New Realities Require New Priorities: Rethinking Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3401301 (June 28, 2019)

The United Nations 17 sustainable development goals are nominally unprioritized. However, numerically and rhetorically, the list effectively makes development goals more important than the environmental goals. This de facto prioritization, however, is deeply flawed in two respects. First, as early sustainable development theorists acknowledged, the environment is the boundary of, not co-equal to, development, constraining potential progress both economically and socially. The Anthropocene’s rapidly accelerating deterioration of the global ecological and physical processes that make human development possible will ultimately constrain development options and potential. Second, human priorities will also change dramatically as adaptation to climate change — the most visible impact of the Anthropocene — becomes a pressing and unavoidable necessity. Development will become secondary to survival for vast expanses of the human global population, who will demote environmental goals where ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Healthism in Tort Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3348441 (June 28, 2019)

This article draws on the author's recently published book, Healthism: Health Status Discrimination and the Law (with Jessica L. Roberts) (Cambridge University Press 2018), examining tort law doctrine and policy for examples of differential treatment of health status or behaviors. Just as scholars previously have drawn attention to discrimination based on race, sex, age, and other protected categories in tort law, the article urges similar examination of tort law's potential to discriminate against the unhealthy. The article discusses the potential for healthism in the reasonably prudent person standard of care, contributory negligence, assumption of the risk, noneconomic damages caps, impaired driver and physician cases, failure to mitigate, intentional infliction of emotional distress, and other tort law rules. It concludes by applying the book's decisional rubric for distinguishing between permissible and impermissible health status differentiation to specific examples from ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Pathways of Multinational Intellectual Property Dispute Settlement, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3284942 (June 26, 2019)

Multinational intellectual property dispute settlement is fraught with challenges. While most right holders have relied on domestic litigation in countries in which they invest or conduct business – or host states in investment lingo – the arrival of new international trade, investment and intellectual property agreements have provided alternative mechanisms for settling these disputes.

To deepen our understanding of the different pathways of multinational intellectual property dispute settlement, this chapter assesses three distinct mechanisms: (1) domestic litigation in host states; (2) state-to-state dispute settlement (SSDS); and (3) investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).

This chapter begins by identifying the various challenges multinational intellectual property right holders encounter when they seek to resolve foreign disputes. It then highlights the improvements provided by international intellectual property agreements and the agreements’ mixed success in ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Producer's Right and the Protection of Machine-Generated Data, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3271189 (June 26, 2019)

In a data-driven economy, there is enormous value in the data generated and collected by humans and machines—both consciously and subconsciously. With the arrival of big data analytics, data have also become highly valuable for uses other than what data producers or collectors initially intended. In view of the fast-growing value and multifaceted uses of data, the European Commission proposed to create a new data producer's right for nonpersonal, anonymized machine-generated data in October 2017. This proposal has since been heavily criticized by legal commentators and consumer advocates.

Thus far, the discussion on the proposed data producer's right has been limited to the European Union. Nevertheless, the United States has actively explored policies in response to changes in the data-driven economy and the growing significance of machine-generated data. Intellectual property developments in the European Union also frequently travel across the Atlantic to affect legislative ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Fitting Machine-Generated Data into Trade Regulatory Holes, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3409532 (June 25, 2019)

In an era when the Internet of Things has slowly transformed into the Internet of Everything, data generated or collected by networked sensors, interconnected devices and intelligent machines have been highly valuable. Taking note of the data's enormous and ever-growing value and the unlimited potential for their use and reuse, industries and their supportive policy makers have actively pushed for greater protection of machine-generated data.

In October 2017, the European Commission proposed a new sui generis data producer's right for nonpersonal, anonymized machine-generated data. If countries began to create new rights in machine-generated data—whether based on the EU proposal or other proposals—the cross-border flow of such data would raise questions about the need for new trade standards. Additional complications would also arise over the potential incoherency between these new trade standards and those other standards that have already been developed, or are now being ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Financial Impact of the Opioid Crisis on Local Government: Quantifying Costs for Litigation and Policymaking, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3325401 (June 18, 2019)

The opioids epidemic has had a significant impact on individuals and communities, including local governments responsible for serving and protecting those affected individuals. This is the first study of its kind to consider whether those local government costs are quantifiable, a question that has salience both for pending opioid litigation in federal and state courts and for local planning and budgeting decisions. This article first provides a detailed description of the opioid litigation landscape, including the federal multidistrict litigation (MDL) in Ohio, the Native American tribes’ actions, and various procedural and other hurdles that local government plaintiffs face in seeking monetary recovery in court. The article also provides a literature review of existing studies on the financial impacts of the opioid epidemic, noting the shortcomings of those studies in regards to quantifying costs for local governments. Finally, it describes our study methodology, which involved ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Debunking Intellectual Property Myths: Cross-Cultural Experiments on Perceptions of Property, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3312822 (June 12, 2019)

For decades the prevailing view in the United States and many Western countries has been that China does not appropriately respect intellectual property rights. These beliefs lie at the heart of President Donald Trump’s current trade war with China. Despite substantial geopolitical debate over differences between American and Chinese attitudes towards intellectual property rights, and despite the critical effects that such attitudes have on international economic markets and the function of the intellectual property system, empirical evidence of these attitudes is largely lacking. This Article presents original survey and experimental research that explores cross-cultural differences between American and Chinese attitudes towards intellectual property rights, personal property rights, and real property rights.

The results of the studies are somewhat counter-intuitive. First, Chinese participants are found to have more consistent preferences towards different types of property ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Incremental Development of the ASEAN-China Strategic Intellectual Property Partnership, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2657358 (June 12, 2019)

In November 2000, a few years after the Asian Financial Crisis, Premier Zhu Rongji announced China's interest in developing a free trade area with ASEAN within a decade. Since then, the two trading powers have established a framework agreement as well as agreements on trade in goods, trade in services and investment. They have also developed memoranda of understanding on cooperation in the fields of agriculture, sanitation and phytosanitation, intellectual property, and standards, technical regulations and conformity assessment. Taken together, these instruments help build the ASEAN–China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) to serve important economic, geopolitical and strategic goals.

This chapter focuses on the cooperation between ASEAN and China in the intellectual property arena. It begins by recounting the historical development of ACFTA. It also briefly examines the provisions in the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Field of Intellectual Property. The chapter then ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Middle Intellectual Property Powers, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2144505 (June 9, 2019)

Commissioned by a project funded by the Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law, this chapter examines a group of middle-income countries that have played or will play important roles in the international intellectual property regime. It begins by noting the challenges in identifying intellectual property developments in middle-income countries, due in large part to their divergent needs, interests, conditions and priorities.

The chapter then contends that a smaller subset of this group will play important roles in the international intellectual property regime. Termed the "middle intellectual property powers," this subset includes Brazil, China, India, the uncontested leaders of the developing world. It could also cover other countries such as Argentina, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Russia, South Africa and Thailand.

Focusing on these emerging powers and drawing on statistics provided by the World Bank, the World Intellectual Property Organization ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Building Intellectual Property Infrastructure Along China's Belt and Road, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3276066 (June 9, 2019)

In the past decade, China has played pivotal roles in developing initiatives such as the BRICS Summit, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the New Development Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. China has also negotiated a number of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, connecting the country to markets in Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America and other parts of the world. Many of these agreements include provisions or chapters on intellectual property protection and enforcement.

One new initiative that has not received much scholarly and policy attention from intellectual property commentators concerns the slowly emerging "One Belt, One Road" Initiative, which has now been officially translated as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Launched in fall 2013, this initiative aims to promote global and regional connectivity through two distinct routes: the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and the sea-based 21st-century Maritime Silk ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: State-to-State and Investor-State Copyright Dispute Settlement, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3386979 (June 9, 2019)

The starting point for an ALAI audience is easily the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, which owes its origin to the efforts of Victor Hugo and other members of the association. Article 33(1) of the Berne Convention, which was first introduced as Article 27bis at the Brussels Revision Conference in 1948, provides signatories with options to settle disputes through the International Court of Justice.

Although this optional dispute settlement mechanism has existed for more than seven decades, no signatory to the Berne Convention has ever used it to resolve an international copyright dispute. Instead, multinational copyright industries and their supportive governments have turned to two alternative mechanisms: (1) state-to-state dispute settlement (SSDS), such as the WTO dispute settlement process; and (2) investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).

Commissioned for the ALAI Congress 2018 in Montreal, Canada, this chapter reviews the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Intellectual Property and Human Rights 2.0, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3394338 (June 9, 2019)

Written in celebration of the seventieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, this article calls for greater methodological engagement to refine existing human rights approaches to intellectual property and to devise new approaches to advance the promotion and protection of human rights in the intellectual property area.

This article begins by briefly recapturing the past two decades of scholarship on intellectual property and human rights. It documents the progress scholars have made in this intersectional area. The article then draws on the latest research on human rights methods and methodology to explore whether and how we can take the academic discourse to the next level. It highlights three dominant research methods that have been used in this intersectional area: comparative methods, quantitative assessments and contextual analyses.

The second half of this article identifies the contributions a robust discourse on intellectual property and ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: The Role of Public Perception in the Rule of Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3383666 (May 30, 2019)

This essay is based on a speech that was part of the Tsinghua China Law Review's 10th Anniversary Symposium: China’s Role Under the Globalization of the Rule of Law. The essay discusses the important role that public perception and understanding of law plays in the success of the rule of law. Empirical studies concerning American and Chinese awareness and attitudes towards intellectual property rights are used to provide examples of legitimacy and functionality challenges for the rule of law.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Israel (2012 Report), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2494559 (May 16, 2019)

This is the Israeli report to the Tort and Insurance Law Yearbook. It critically evaluates notable developments which took place in Israeli tort law in 2012. Part A discusses legislation and legislative bills in various areas, including state liability, compensation and assistance following the cancellation of a flight or a change in its conditions, road accidents victims' compensation, and disclosure of internet user information in tort litigation. Part B discusses 2012 Supreme Court decisions on wrongful life and wrongful birth, the truth defense in defamation law, the evidentiary weight of acquittal in a criminal procedure, the applicability of the contributory negligence defense in an action for deceit, the interrelation between tort law and property law, a tort-based duty to disclose an anonymous user's identity, and the scope of the medical duty to disclose information. Part B also analyzes recent developments concerning a uniquely Israeli head of damages - "infringement of ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Civil Liability for Cyberbullying, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3371020 (May 6, 2019)

Cyberbullying has become a notorious epidemic, culminating in widely publicized suicides. Whether a new and distinct problem or an old one in a new guise, the technological setting has undoubtedly generated new challenges and, at the same time, new opportunities for legal response. Regrettably, while delegation of power to educational institutions and criminalization of cyber-misconduct are relatively common, at least in public discourse, the potential impact of civil liability has been downplayed. This Article puts the underexplored regulatory tool under the spotlight. It provides systematic legal and economic analyses of civil liability for cyberbullying, based on a trichotomy of potential defendants—primary wrongdoers, real-life supervisors (parents, schools), and virtual supervisors (mostly online platform operators).

Ultimately, the Article lays the foundations for an efficiency-oriented model which integrates technological features to reduce supervisors’ information ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: גבולות היצירה השיפוטית
The Limits of Judicial Creativity
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=908338 (April 22, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract:
מאמר זה משרטט את גבולות היצירה השיפוטית, אגב דיון בפסק דינו של בית המשפט העליון בעניין סרדיוק נ' התצ"ר. באותו עניין נקרא המערער לשירות סדיר לאחר שחלפה התקופה המותרת לקריאתו לשירות לפי חוק שירות בטחון. הנשיא ברק סבר, עם זאת, כי בהתאם לפרשנות שניתנה לסעיף 49 לחוק בפסיקה ותיקה יש להאריך את פרק-הזמן המותר לגיוס אם ובמידה שהמיועד לשירות גרם באשמתו לעיכוב בהליכי החיול או הסכים במשתמע לעיכוב כזה. המאמר מעלה ומברר שלוש טענות בהקשר זה.

ראשית, ההלכה שניתן לגזור מן הפסיקה שקדמה לעניין סרדיוק צרה הרבה יותר מזו שנקבעה על ידי הנשיא באותו עניין. בהתאם להלכת לוי – הנסמכת על פירושו של סעיף 49 לחוק שירות בטחון – אי-ציות לצו-כללי המטיל על יוצא הצבא חובה להתייצב לרישום ולבדיקות וחובה מותנית להתייצב לשירות סדיר מביא לעצירת מירוץ ההתיישנות של סמכות הקריאה לשירות לאורך כל תקופת אי-ההתייצבות לרישום או לבדיקות. בהמשך אמנם הכיר בית המשפט בכך שחובתו המותנית של יוצא הצבא להתייצב לשירות סדיר משתמעת גם מצווים-אישיים הקוראים לו להתייצב לרישום או לבדיקה רפואית; אולם הוא מעולם לא ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: הכל צפוי והרשלנות נתונה
Everything Is Foreseen and the Negligence Is Given
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=978538 (April 22, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract: מאמר זה בוחן מנקודת מבט ביקורתית את דרך-ההנמקה של בית המשפט העליון בדיון הנוסף בפרשת קליפורד, עם דגש על תרומתו של פסק הדין להרחבת האחריות בנזיקין, במיוחד בתחום הטיפול הרפואי. בחלקו הראשון מועלות מספר טענות כנגד תהליך ההכרעה בעניין ההתרשלות. ראשית, בית המשפט השתמש ברטוריקה תועלתנית-כלכלית אך לא יישם בצורה הראויה את המתודולוגיה המתחייבת מגישה זו. שנית, בית המשפט התייחס לאי-נקיטה בשיטת טיפול “עדיפה”, היינו – שיטה שבה הפגיעה בנוחותו של המטופל נמוכה יותר מאשר בשיטות אחרות, כאל אינדיקציה חזקה מאוד להתרשלות, למרות שאין זיקה הכרחית או מהותית בין השניים. שלישית, בית המשפט לא ייחס משקל ראוי לפרקטיקה הרפואית המקובלת. רביעית, בית המשפט העניק משקל מופרז להוראות היצרן של חומרים המשמשים לטיפול רפואי.

בחלקו השני מבקר המאמר את דרך ההנמקה של בית המשפט בעניין הסיבתיות המשפטית וריחוק הנזק. גישתה של השופטת ביניש בערעור, אשר אומצה בתמציתיות על ידי השופט אור בדיון הנוסף, המייחסת לרופא יכולת לצפות התרחשויות בלתי צפויות היא, למצער, מוקשית. גישתו האלטרנטיבית של השופט אור ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: דירוג כתבי עת משפטיים עבריים - יסודות עיוניים ומחקר אמפירי ראשוני
Ranking Hebrew Law Reviews: Theoretical Foundations and a Preliminary Empirical Study
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=908334 (April 22, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract: בעשורים האחרונים נעשו בארצות הברית מספר ניסיונות לדרג כתבי-עת משפטיים מקומיים על פי מדדים שונים – כמותיים ואיכותיים. בישראל טרם נעשה ניסיון דומה. מטרתו של מאמר זה כפולה. היעד הראשון הוא להציע תשתית עיונית לדירוג רציף של כתבי עת משפטיים בכלל, וכתבי עת משפטיים עבריים בפרט. המאמר מנתח את שיטות הדירוג השונות שהוצעו במרוצת השנים במדינות-הים. הוא מבקר ושולל את השימוש בשיטות המתבססות על מידת החשיבות של מחברות המאמרים; על העברת סקרים בין המשתמשות בכתבי העת; על שיפוט בידי ועדות מומחים; על היקף השימוש בכתבי העת בספריות משפטיות ועל שיעור-הדחייה של מאמרים. לאחר מכן מציע המאמר להשתמש בשיטה המבוססת על שכיחות האיזכורים של כל אחד מכתבי העת, הן בכתיבה האקדמית והן בפסיקה (במיוחד זו של בית המשפט העליון). ההנחה העומדת ביסודה של השיטה המוצעת היא שמספר האיזכורים (בכתיבה האקדמית ובפסיקה) מספק אינדיקציה כמותית, אם כי לא לגמרי מדויקת, למידת ההשפעה של כתבי העת השונים על השיח המשפטי (האקדמי והמעשי בהתאמה).

English Abstract: In recent decades several scholars have attempted ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: על אחריותם בנזיקין של סרבני גט
Tort Liability of Recalcitrant Husbands
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=908331 (April 22, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract:אלמונית ופלוני, יהודים תושבי ישראל, נישאים זו לזה על פי דין תורה. בשלב מסוים עולה מערכת היחסים על שרטון והאישה מבקשת להתגרש מן האיש. בית דין רבני קובע כי האיש חייב לגרש את אשתו אולם זה אינו שועה להחלטה. חוק בתי דין רבניים (קיום פסקי דין של גירושין), התשנ"ה-1995 מאפשר לבית הדין לנקוט כנגד אותו אדם סנקציות שונות כדי להניעו לחזור בו מסירובו. אלא שחרף הסנקציות המוטלות עליו, ואולי אף בשל אי נכונותו של בית הדין לעשות שימוש בסמכויותיו לפי החוק – האיש עומד במריו. האישה אינה יכולה להינשא לאחר (או אפילו לחיות עימו אם ברצונה להינשא לו בבוא העת), ואינה יכולה ללדת ילדים לאחר מבלי שידבק בהם כתם הממזרות. מסורבת הגט לא רק כלואה בתוך מסגרת משפחתית בלתי רצויה אלא גם מנועה מהקמת מסגרת משפחתית חדשה. פוטנציאל הסבל עצום.

מטרתו של המאמר היא לברר אם מסורבת הגט תוכל להיפרע את נזקה מן הסרבן. בשלב הראשון בוחן המאמר אם לבית משפט אזרחי סמכות עניינית לדון בתביעת נזיקין המוגשת כנגד סרבן הגט על יסוד ההנחה שקיים פסק דין של גירושין. בשלב השני נבחנות עילות תביעה פוטנציאליות. בידי האישה ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: מהפך או מפח? סיפורו של חוק פיצויים לנפגעי תאונות דרכים
A Misrepresented Reform: The Story of the Road Accidents Victims' Compensation Act
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=882860 (April 22, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract: המניע הרשמי לחקיקת חוק פיצויים לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, תשל"ה-1975, היה מניע סוציאלי. בהתאם לתפיסה המסורתית, המוצגת בחלקו הראשון של המאמר, החוק נועד להבטיח פיצוי מהיר ונאות לכל אדם שנפגע בתאונת דרכים. הוויתור על יסוד האשמה, הרחבתה של חובת הביטוח והקמת "קרנית" היו אמורים להפוך את החזון למציאות. כמו כן, כדי להקל על הנפגע את סבלו וכדי למנוע לחץ לפשרה מצד חברות הביטוח העניק המחוקק לכל נפגע זכות לתשלום תכוף, המשולם עוד לפני סיומו של ההליך. אגב הגשמת הייעוד הסוציאלי היה החוק אמור לתרום להפחתת העומס על מערכת המשפט.

חלקו השני של המאמר מראה, כי הצגת חוק הפיצויים כהסדר מהפכני המבטיח פיצוי מספק לנפגעים שלא היו זכאים לסעד בלעדיו או שהיו יכולים לזכות בפיצוי חלקי בלבד היא, למצער, מוגזמת. מנסחי החוק ומפרשיו הפריזו בחשיבות הוויתור על דרישת האשמה להרחבת חוג הנפגעים שהיו יכולים לזכות בפיצוי בלעדיו לא רק מפני שהתייחסו לדרישה זו כאל מהמורה גדולה יותר מכפי שהייתה באמת בדרכו של תובע פוטנציאלי, אלא גם משום שיצרו מצג מוטעה ומטעה שלפיו משטר האחריות המוחלטת מגשים את האידיאל של ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: אידיאליזם מול פרגמטיזם: הרהורים אודות הפולמוס בעניינם של נפגעי תאונות-הדרכים
Idealism v. Pragmatism: Reflections on the Road Accident Victims Polemic
, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180157 (April 20, 2019)

תקציר בעברית: המטרה העיקרית של רשימה זו היא לנסות ולהכריע במחלוקת עזה ונוקבת שנפלה בין שניים מגדולי המומחים לדיני נזיקין בישראל בדבר אופיו של ההסדר הראוי לטיפול בנפגעי תאונות דרכים. משניהם קניתי דעת ולשניהם אני אסיר-תודה. האחד, פרופסור אמריטוס בפקולטה למשפטים של האוניברסיטה העברית, רב ידע ועתיר ניסיון, השופט בדימוס יצחק אנגלרד. השני, מרצה צעיר, נמרץ ומבטיח לדיני-נזיקין בפקולטה יוקרתית, ד"ר אנגלרד יצחק. הראשון, שהחל לפעול בשלהי שנות השמונים ונמנה על חסידיו של ההסדר הקיים, יכונה להלן אנגלרד הפרגמטיסט. השני, שפעל בעיקר בין שנות השישים לשנות השמונים וצידד בלהט בהסדר חלופי, יכונה כאן אנגלרד האידיאליסט. המאמר ינסה לשרטט את עיקרי הדיאלוג הבין-זמני בין שני האנגלרדים ביחס לרפורמה שנעשתה אצלנו לפני שלושה עשורים בתחום הפיצוי לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, ויטען שעמדתו של אנגלרד האידיאליסט הייתה ועודנה עדיפה.

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: מהפך או מפח? סיפורו של חוק פיצויים לנפגעי תאונות דרכים (A Misrepresented Reform: The Story of the Road Accidents Victims' Compensation Act), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=882860 (April 20, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract: המניע הרשמי לחקיקת חוק פיצויים לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, תשל"ה-1975, היה מניע סוציאלי. בהתאם לתפיסה המסורתית, המוצגת בחלקו הראשון של המאמר, החוק נועד להבטיח פיצוי מהיר ונאות לכל אדם שנפגע בתאונת דרכים. הוויתור על יסוד האשמה, הרחבתה של חובת הביטוח והקמת "קרנית" היו אמורים להפוך את החזון למציאות. כמו כן, כדי להקל על הנפגע את סבלו וכדי למנוע לחץ לפשרה מצד חברות הביטוח העניק המחוקק לכל נפגע זכות לתשלום תכוף, המשולם עוד לפני סיומו של ההליך. אגב הגשמת הייעוד הסוציאלי היה החוק אמור לתרום להפחתת העומס על מערכת המשפט.

חלקו השני של המאמר מראה, כי הצגת חוק הפיצויים כהסדר מהפכני המבטיח פיצוי מספק לנפגעים שלא היו זכאים לסעד בלעדיו או שהיו יכולים לזכות בפיצוי חלקי בלבד היא, למצער, מוגזמת. מנסחי החוק ומפרשיו הפריזו בחשיבות הוויתור על דרישת האשמה להרחבת חוג הנפגעים שהיו יכולים לזכות בפיצוי בלעדיו לא רק מפני שהתייחסו לדרישה זו כאל מהמורה גדולה יותר מכפי שהייתה באמת בדרכו של תובע פוטנציאלי, אלא גם משום שיצרו מצג מוטעה ומטעה שלפיו משטר האחריות המוחלטת מגשים את האידיאל של ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: הכל צפוי והרשלנות נתונה Everything Is Foreseen and the Negligence Is Given, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=978538 (April 18, 2019)

Hebrew Abstract: מאמר זה בוחן מנקודת מבט ביקורתית את דרך-ההנמקה של בית המשפט העליון בדיון הנוסף בפרשת קליפורד, עם דגש על תרומתו של פסק הדין להרחבת האחריות בנזיקין, במיוחד בתחום הטיפול הרפואי. בחלקו הראשון מועלות מספר טענות כנגד תהליך ההכרעה בעניין ההתרשלות. ראשית, בית המשפט השתמש ברטוריקה תועלתנית-כלכלית אך לא יישם בצורה הראויה את המתודולוגיה המתחייבת מגישה זו. שנית, בית המשפט התייחס לאי-נקיטה בשיטת טיפול “עדיפה”, היינו – שיטה שבה הפגיעה בנוחותו של המטופל נמוכה יותר מאשר בשיטות אחרות, כאל אינדיקציה חזקה מאוד להתרשלות, למרות שאין זיקה הכרחית או מהותית בין השניים. שלישית, בית המשפט לא ייחס משקל ראוי לפרקטיקה הרפואית המקובלת. רביעית, בית המשפט העניק משקל מופרז להוראות היצרן של חומרים המשמשים לטיפול רפואי.

בחלקו השני מבקר המאמר את דרך ההנמקה של בית המשפט בעניין הסיבתיות המשפטית וריחוק הנזק. גישתה של השופטת ביניש בערעור, אשר אומצה בתמציתיות על ידי השופט אור בדיון הנוסף, המייחסת לרופא יכולת לצפות התרחשויות בלתי צפויות היא, למצער, מוקשית. גישתו האלטרנטיבית של השופט אור ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: אידיאליזם מול פרגמטיזם: הרהורים אודות הפולמוס בעניינם של נפגעי תאונות-הדרכים Idealism v. Pragmatism: Reflections on the Road Accident Victims Polemic, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180157 (April 18, 2019)

תקציר בעברית: המטרה העיקרית של רשימה זו היא לנסות ולהכריע במחלוקת עזה ונוקבת שנפלה בין שניים מגדולי המומחים לדיני נזיקין בישראל בדבר אופיו של ההסדר הראוי לטיפול בנפגעי תאונות דרכים. משניהם קניתי דעת ולשניהם אני אסיר-תודה. האחד, פרופסור אמריטוס בפקולטה למשפטים של האוניברסיטה העברית, רב ידע ועתיר ניסיון, השופט בדימוס יצחק אנגלרד. השני, מרצה צעיר, נמרץ ומבטיח לדיני-נזיקין בפקולטה יוקרתית, ד"ר אנגלרד יצחק. הראשון, שהחל לפעול בשלהי שנות השמונים ונמנה על חסידיו של ההסדר הקיים, יכונה להלן אנגלרד הפרגמטיסט. השני, שפעל בעיקר בין שנות השישים לשנות השמונים וצידד בלהט בהסדר חלופי, יכונה כאן אנגלרד האידיאליסט. המאמר ינסה לשרטט את עיקרי הדיאלוג הבין-זמני בין שני האנגלרדים ביחס לרפורמה שנעשתה אצלנו לפני שלושה עשורים בתחום הפיצוי לנפגעי תאונות דרכים, ויטען שעמדתו של אנגלרד האידיאליסט הייתה ועודנה עדיפה.

%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: A Hater's Guide to Geoblocking, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3361772 (April 9, 2019)

Geoblocking restricts access to online content based on the user's geographical location. Territorially based access control is strongly disliked, if not passionately hated, by those who travel abroad frequently as well as those who consume a considerable amount of foreign content. While the past has seen the use of geoblocking as technological self-help, such a technique has now received growing support from policymakers and judges.

Commissioned for a symposium on "Intellectual Property in a Globalized Economy: United States Extraterritoriality in International Business," this article begins by briefly recounting five sets of arguments against geoblocking. The article then draws on the latest developments in Europe and at the World Intellectual Property Organization. It reiterates the need for copyright holders to adopt strategies to disseminate copyrighted content at the global level.

The second half of the article responds to the copyright industries' increasing ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Models for Predicting Business Bankruptcies and Their Application to Banking and to Financial Regulation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3329147 (April 3, 2019)

Models for predicting business bankruptcies have evolved rapidly. Machine learning is displacing traditional statistical methodologies. Three distinct techniques for approaching the classification problem in bankruptcy prediction have emerged: single classification, hybrid classifiers, and classifier ensembles. Methodological heterogeneity through the introduction and integration of machine-learning algorithms (especially support vector machines, decision trees, and genetic algorithms) has improved the accuracy of bankruptcy prediction models. Improved natural language processing has enabled machine learning to combine textual analysis of corporate filings with evaluation of numerical data. Greater accuracy promotes external processes of banks by minimizing credit risk and by facilitating regulatory compliance.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Towards the Seamless Global Distribution of Cloud Content, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2478583 (March 29, 2019)

In the age of cloud computing, consumers expect content to be accessible anywhere, anytime. Since their arrival, cloud platforms and related services have posed considerable challenges to copyright holders. Notwithstanding these challenges, one cannot overlook the boundless opportunities this new technology has provided to rights holders for distributing copyright content across the world. To a large extent, the global distribution of cloud content has brought back the age-old discussion concerning the proper response to disruptive technology and the copyright industries' repeated and arguably short-sighted efforts to protect outdated business models.

To complicate matters further, cloud platforms and related services have raised new questions that have not been widely discussed in the digital technology debate. Because these platforms facilitate simultaneous multijurisdictional access to copyright content, they unsurprisingly are in a collision course with the territoriality ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: China, 'Belt and Road' and Intellectual Property Cooperation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3332346 (March 23, 2019)

In fall 2013, China launched the 'One Belt, One Road' Initiative, covering over 60 percent of the world's population and about a third of global GDP. Now translated officially as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), this new development features two distinct routes: the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and the sea-based 21st-century Maritime Silk Road.

Although burgeoning literature has emerged to analyze the BRI's benefits, drawbacks and ramifications, few scholars have explored the initiative's potential impact on international and regional intellectual property systems. Commissioned for a special issue on the BRI, the present article aims to fill this void by examining the emerging role China and its BRI will play in the intellectual property area.

This article begins by exploring China's growing assertiveness in the international arena. It then explores six areas in which the BRI can play constructive roles in facilitating international and regional cooperation. ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Law of Torts, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3180589 (March 22, 2019)

This book chapter systematically analyzes the fundamental principles of Israeli tort law. Given space limits it focuses on core areas, and does not profess to be comprehensive. Part II discusses fault based liability—intentional torts, negligence, and presumptions of negligence. Part III examines strict liability, including the special regimes pertaining to road accidents, defective products, and defamation, and the general tort of breach of statutory duty. Part IV discusses general defenses—particularly those deriving from the plaintiff’s fault or consent, and the special defenses afforded to the state, public authorities, and civil servants. Part V explains how the bilateral wrongdoer-victim model has been extended by allowing claims against or by third parties. Part VI examines the available remedies.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Continuity and Transformation in Environmental Governance, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3338988 (March 13, 2019)

Almost since the modern era of environmental regulation began in the 1970s, there have been arguments for replacing it with something else. Surely, critics argued, it was possible to improve on a rigid hierarchy from the issuance of federal uniform standards to state implementation to firm compliance. Conventional regulation, it has been said, is too clumsy, too slow, too inefficient. The critics offered various replacements for federal “command and control” regulation, including use of alternative regulatory tools such as emissions trading or collaborative governance and a massive shift of regulatory authority to the states. There have been significant incremental changes, but little in the way of transformation – except in the arena of climate change. States, cities, and private firms have all undertaken aggressive climate change initiatives. This paper argues that the complex national and international networks and interactions involving these efforts are best understood as ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: TRIPS Wars: Developing Countries Strike Back, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2671664 (March 12, 2019)

This chapter focuses on the "TRIPS Wars," which involved the developed countries' repeated strikes on the sovereignty, autonomy and policy space of developing countries. These strikes began with the establishment of the TRIPS Agreement, which was then followed by the increasing efforts to negotiate TRIPS-plus trade and intellectual property agreements.

Notwithstanding these repeated strikes, developing countries have been learning fast. After a decade of mobilization and adjustments, they have now slowly acquired the ability to launch counter-strikes. These counter-strikes are important because they may provide the flashpoints for future tensions and conflicts in the international intellectual property regime.

This chapter begins by discussing the impact of the TRIPS Agreement and TRIPS-plus trade and intellectual property agreements on developing countries. It then examines the developing countries' counter-strikes at the WTO — including those at the Doha Round ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: From Surviving to Thriving: Equity in Disaster Planning and Recovery, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3340133 (March 5, 2019)

The natural disasters of 2017-19 have exposed weaknesses in our preparation for disaster and climate change. What if we had paid attention — before disaster ensued — to how environmental protection and planning can prevent and minimize the harm that disasters cause to people, their housing, and the infrastructure of our cities, states, and territories? Steps to inform the public about risks, to adopt protective measures, and to enforce health, safety and environmental standards could have minimized the human suffering and loss and minimized the economic costs associated with recovery. This paper explores how such changes in various federal and state laws could make us more resilient.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Regulatory Review in Anti-Regulatory Times, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3302206 (February 22, 2019)

This Article investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in an antiregulatory regime. The first two years of the Trump Administration have seen the first vigorous use by Congress of its power to overturn recently issued regulations and the creation of novel deregulatory mechanisms layered on top of cost-benefit analysis. There have also been dramatic examples of sharply reversed CBAs, in which regulations that were said to have large net benefits under Obama are instead said to have net costs under Trump. The Trump Administration’s regulatory review initiatives focus heavily on costs, with limited attention to benefits. Case studies of three regulations show that the economic analysis of one is seriously defective, another admits to having severe limitations, and a third seems makes a concerted effort to reduce the weight of benefits. Some of these characteristics may be analytically defensible, others seemingly are not. It is even harder to connect Congress’s recent uses of the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: United States Constitutional Law: Chapter 1 (Introduction), https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3326238 (February 20, 2019)

United States Constitutional Law (Found. Press 2019) guides law students, political science students, and engaged citizens through the complexities of U.S. Supreme Court doctrine and its relationship to constitutional politics — in key areas ranging from federalism and presidential power to equal protection and substantive due process. Rather than approach constitutional law as a static structure or imagine the Supreme Court as acting in isolation from society, the book elucidates key constitutional doctrines while also drawing on scholarship in law and political science that connects doctrine to large social changes such as industrialization, social movements such as civil rights and second-wave feminism, and institutional tensions between governmental actors.

Combining legal analysis with historical narrative and sensitivity to political context, the book provides deeper understanding of how constitutional law arises, functions, and changes in a complex, often-divided ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: China, "Belt and Road" and Intellectual Property Cooperation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3332346 (February 11, 2019)

In fall 2013, China launched the "One Belt, One Road" Initiative. Now translated as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), this new development features two distinct routes: the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and the sea-based 21st-century Maritime Silk Road. Although burgeoning literature has emerged to analyze the BRI's benefits, drawbacks and ramifications, few scholars have explored the initiative's emerging impact on international and regional intellectual property systems.

Aiming to fill this void, the present article begins by exploring China's growing assertiveness in the international arena. The article then explores six areas in which the BRI can play constructive roles in facilitating international and regional cooperation on intellectual property matters. Recognizing that this initiative has generated many concerns and complications, this article concludes by addressing three oft-raised questions relating to the initiative.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Exclusivities in the Age of Big Data, Biologics, and Plurilaterals, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3133810 (February 8, 2019)

The past decade has seen many new developments impacting the intellectual property system. The introduction of big data analytics has transformed the fields of biotechnology and bioinformatics while ushering in major advances in drug development, clinical practices and medical financing. The arrival of biologics and personalized medicines has also revolutionized the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, the emergence of bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade agreements have raised serious, and at times difficult, questions concerning the evolution of domestic and international intellectual property standards.

One topic linking all three developments together concerns the establishment of international standards to protect clinical trial data that have been submitted to regulatory authorities for the marketing approval of pharmaceutical products. During the TPP negotiations, for example, the protection of clinical trial data submitted for the marketing ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: TPP, RCEP, and the Crossvergence of Asian Intellectual Property Standards, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3032941 (February 8, 2019)

The debate on convergence and divergence has garnered considerable attention from policymakers and commentators involved in regulatory developments in Asia. The developments surrounding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) have added fuel to this debate. Given the different leadership in these two megaregional agreements and the exclusion of many RCEP parties from the TPP negotiations, it will be interesting to see how the agreements will affect the future efforts to set regional intellectual property standards. It will also be curious to see whether the draft and finalized standards could reveal policy preferences of the participating countries.

In January 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed a memorandum directing the United States to withdraw from the TPP, putting the megaregional pact on life support. A year later, however, the eleven remaining TPP partners signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Beyond Instrumentalism: A Substantivist Perspective on Law, Technology, and the Digital Persona, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3327607 (February 4, 2019)

Law and technology matters have traditionally been researched in discrete categories such as intellectual property (e.g., copyright, patent, or trademark) or intermediary liability and responsibility (e.g., secondary liability and telecommunications regulation). In the last two decades, however, academics have studied the broader interaction between law and technology across legal fields. This Article examines progress to date and discusses two distinct perspectives on law and technology.

The dominant approach has been an instrumentalist one that treats technology as a tool for individuals to use while downplaying its broader social implications. However, the fields of philosophy of technology, science and technology studies, and social studies of science are now mature enough to support a rival approach grounded in a deep understanding of the nature—rather than the results—of technological change. This substantivist approach suggests analytical principles to refine and ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: A Rule of Persons, Not Machines: The Limits of Legal Automation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3135549 (February 3, 2019)

For many legal futurists, attorneys’ work is a prime target for automation. They view the legal practice of most businesses as algorithmic: data (such as facts) are transformed into outputs (agreements or litigation stances) via application of set rules (the law). These technophiles promote substituting computer code for contracts and descriptions of facts now written by humans. They point to early successes in legal automation as proof of concept. For example, TurboTax has helped millions of Americans file taxes, and algorithms have taken over certain aspects of stock trading. Corporate efforts to “formalize legal code” may bring new efficiencies in areas of practice characterized by both legal and factual clarity.

Legal automation, however, can also elide or exclude important human values, necessary improvisations, and irreducibly deliberative governance. Due process depends on narratively intelligible communication from persons and for persons that are not reducible to ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Tax Wars: The Battle over Taxing Global Digital Commerce, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3309920 (January 28, 2019)

This Article discusses the emergence of an international tax “war” and provides an overview of global digital taxation reform efforts. Governments have been unable to attain consensus surrounding how to tax cross-border digital transactions. As a result, dozens of governments are now pursuing uncoordinated reforms -- including digital services taxes, economic presence tests, withholding taxes and equalization levies -- that will encourage international double taxation and inhibit cross-border trade and investment. The global digital tax conflict masks a growing dissatisfaction with how to tax value associated with global transactions. Until this larger problem is unresolved, the war may continue unabated.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Rise of China in the International Intellectual Property Regime, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3224443 (January 10, 2019)

The rise of China in the international arena has caught the attention of many – whether they are excited about the country's ascendancy or worried about its territorial ambitions. Voluminous literature now exists to cover the impact of China's rise on the international geopolitical and economic systems. One area that has not garnered much attention thus far is the impact of China's rise on the international intellectual property regime.

To examine this impact, the present chapter begins by revisiting the typology scholars have used to chart the progress a country has made in its engagement with international norms: (1) norm breaker; (2) norm taker; (3) norm shaker; and (4) norm maker. Although China has been widely considered a norm breaker or a norm taker in the intellectual property arena, it has now slowly taken on the roles of both a norm shaker and a norm maker.

This chapter then examines three notable developments that have enabled China to shape future ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Data Exclusivities and the Limits to TRIPS Harmonization, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3296236 (January 10, 2019)

2019 marks the silver anniversary of the WTO TRIPS Agreement. Policymakers and commentators remain deeply divided about the strengths and limitations of this agreement. On the one hand, they marvel at its success in establishing international minimum standards for the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. On the other hand, they widely criticize the agreement for imposing high "one size fits all" standards upon developing countries.

Regardless of one's perspective, the harmonization project advanced by the TRIPS Agreement, and continued through TRIPS-plus bilateral, regional and plurilateral agreements, has been at the forefront of the international intellectual property debate. While this article is interested in exploring this continuously controversial project, the discussion will focus on a topic that international intellectual property scholars have underexplored: the limits to TRIPS harmonization.

To help examine these limits, this article ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Second-Order Inequality: Clarifying and Modeling the Gini Coefficient with Measures of Internal Asymmetry, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3302339 (January 2, 2019)

This paper presents a physical model of the Gini coefficient and its corresponding Lorenz curve. If the Lorenz curve is scaled to 1, then 1 represents gross domestic income, gross domestic product, or societal wealth. The value 1 also represents total population. On these assumptions, the value of x ∈ [0, 1] where the first derivative of the Gini coefficient equals one represents the population quantile that enjoys per capita income or wealth. This paper also describes methods for evaluating the internal asymmetry of any distribution corresponding to a particular Gini coefficient. It concludes with worked examples from Oxfam’s survey of global inequality and from French data on wealth inequality.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: What Causes Polarization on IP Policy?, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3140169 (December 20, 2018)

Polarization on contentious policy issues is a problem of national concern for both hot-button cultural issues such as climate change and gun control and for issues of interest to more specialized constituencies. Cultural debates have become so contentious that in many cases people are unable to agree even on the underlying facts needed to resolve these issues. Here, we tackle this problem in the context of intellectual property law. Despite an explosion in the quantity and quality of empirical evidence about the intellectual property system, IP policy debates have become increasingly polarized. This disagreement about existing evidence concerning the effects of the IP system hinders democratic deliberation and stymies progress.

Based on a survey of U.S. IP practitioners, this Article investigates the source of polarization on IP issues, with the goal of understanding how to better enable evidence-based IP policymaking. We hypothesized that, contrary to intuition, more ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Presidential Exit, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3100378 (December 11, 2018)

The flow of executive orders, presidential memoranda, proclamations, determinations, executive agreements, national security directives, signing statements and other pronouncements emanating from the early days of every White House administration — what presidency scholar Phillip Cooper calls presidential direct actions — serves as a lightning rod for claims that the president is engaged in a “power grab.” Not infrequently, however, one president’s grab is about taking back another president’s grab. This certainly was the case during the year of the Trump administration, but President Trump is by no means unique in this regard, for many of his predecessors did the same to their predecessors. The reality is that the act of revoking executive orders has become one of the principal strategic political uses of direct actions by recent presidents.

In this Article we probe this practice using a framework we developed in a previous article, Regulatory Exit, in which we examined the ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Development Bridge Over Troubled Intellectual Property Water, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3027103 (December 5, 2018)

Written in celebration of Pedro Roffe's life and achievements, this chapter captures the many valuable contributions he has made in his three decades at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and a decade and a half at the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD). It focuses on three sets of development bridges that he has built and helped build in the intellectual property arena, drawing illustrations from the author's personal encounters with him and his organizations.

This chapter begins with bridges that allow us to revisit the past developments in the international intellectual property regime. It then turns to bridges that help provide a unique vantage point for taking stock of current developments and recognizing what is new and important in this regime. The chapter concludes with bridges that help advance the debate on intellectual property and global development while reorienting us towards a better future.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Imitative Pasts, Innovation Pathways and Intellectual Property, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3293718 (November 30, 2018)

Throughout history, countries have transformed from imitators to innovators. Cases in point are Germany, the United States, Japan, Singapore and South Korea, all of which have crossed over from the pirating side of the intellectual property divide to its more promising side. Thus far, it has been unclear how much of that crossover can be attributed to the development of a well-functioning intellectual property system, as opposed to other factors, such as the improved quality of higher education and increased research-and-development expenditures.

As important as intellectual property rights have been, their levels of protection and enforcement have not always been a good proxy for a country's innovative capabilities. Innovation comes in many different forms. While the past two centuries have seen intellectual property rights providing a major boost to innovation, such innovation can also be driven by necessity, patronage, grants and prizes. In the past decade, the relationship ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Lincoln, Presidential Power, and the Rule of Law, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3144115 (November 21, 2018)

Every era has its unique challenges, but history may still offer lessons on how law empowers and restrains presidents. This lecture examines how Lincoln negotiated the tension between crisis authority and the rule of law. This analysis requires an appreciation of the wartime imperatives, institutions, and political forces confronting Lincoln and of the legal framework in which he acted. Similar issues unexpectedly arose in our times in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, providing a new point of comparison with Lincoln’s era. We need to better understand how political actors and institutions, the media, and public opinion can provide support for legal norms, lest we place all of our trust in Presidential self-restraint and good judgment.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Special International Zones in Practice and Theory, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3271942 (November 19, 2018)

The French Republic had a problem. Foreign nationals had flown into the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris and claimed the right to stay as refugees seeking asylum. Unwilling to have the supposed refugees imposed upon it, France resolved to process their claims without letting them into the country. How? By keeping them in the airport’s international transit zone—the area between the exit doors of airplanes arriving from abroad and the far side of customs and immigration clearance. This split border allowed France to summarily process and (typically) deport the foreigners while keeping them outside the country’s territory for asylum purposes. When detainees got seriously ill, France created so-called “floating international zones” to take them to a local hospital, a portion of which became a temporary international zone. These French innovations in border control inspired Hungarian transit zones, Australian migration zones, and similar partial territories across the planet. ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Introduction to Intellectual Property Law and Policy in China, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3280257 (November 16, 2018)

This essay provides an introduction to Intellectual Property Law and Policy in China, a multiple-volume reference set on the Chinese intellectual property system. It discusses how the 90 articles and chapters selected for this reference set have been organized into four broadly defined areas: (1) historical evolution; (2) special topics; (3) interdisciplinary understanding; and (4) possible futures. The essay further explains why these four areas are important to readers who are eager to develop a deeper understanding of the Chinse intellectual property system.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: The Politics of Professionalism: Reappraising Occupational Licensure and Competition Policy, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2881732 (October 17, 2018)

Elite economists and lawyers have united to criticize occupational licensing. They contend that licensure rules raise consumer prices and restrict labor market entry and job mobility. The Obama Administration’s Council of Economic Advisers and Federal Trade Commission have joined libertarians and conservatives in calling for occupational regulations to be scaled back. Billed as a bipartisan boost to market competition, this technocratic policy agenda rests on thin empirical foundations. Studies of the wage effects of licensing rarely couple this analysis of its putative “costs” with convincing analysis of the benefits of the professional or vocational education validated via licensure. While some licensing rules may be onerous and excessive, licensing rules are inadequate or underenforced in other labor markets. Furthermore, by limiting labor market entry, occupational licensing rules, like minimum wage and labor laws, can help raise and stabilize working and middle class wages — ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Medicalization of Rural Poverty: Challenges for Access, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3127049 (October 17, 2018)

This article was prepared for a live conference, on “The Medicalization of Poverty,” held at the University of Illinois College of Law, and a symposium to be published in the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. My piece focuses on a constellation of challenges for health care delivery and access to care in rural areas. Discussions regarding health and poverty often seem to focus on the admittedly persistent and multilayered problems of the urban poor: unemployment, substandard and unaffordable housing, violent crime, nutrition and “food desserts,” recreation and safe outdoor spaces, and under-resourced public schools, to name a few. While cities certainly constitute population centers for poverty, we should not confine our discussion to that context. Rural poverty and rural health disparities present additional, unique concerns for the medicalization of poverty. Access to medical care is particularly challenging in rural areas for an array of reasons, including financial ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Catholic Dioceses in Bankruptcy, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3253092 (October 13, 2018)

The Catholic Church is coping with mass tort liability for sexual abuse of children by priests. Since 2004, eighteen Catholic organizations have filed for relief in bankruptcy. Fifteen debtors emerged from bankruptcy after settling with sexual abuse claimants and insurers. During settlement negotiations, sexual abuse claimants and debtors clashed over the extent of the debtors’ property and ability to pay claims. Although such disputes are common in chapter 11 plan negotiations, the Catholic cases required the parties and bankruptcy courts to account for unique religious attributes of Catholic debtors. This article reviews the arguments and outcomes on property issues based on reported decisions, pleadings, plans, and disclosure statements. It explains the key characteristics of Catholic dioceses under canon and secular organization law and the bankruptcy contexts in which these characteristics became hot button issues. It offers an analysis of the legacy of the Catholic cases ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Groia: Four Strikes and You're Not Out, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3240138 (September 9, 2018)

This Comment reviews the 2018 Groia v. Law Society of Upper Canada decision by the Supreme Court of Canada. In this case, the Court held in favor of Mr. Groia, overturning two lower court decisions and two Law Society tribunal decisions. A central issue was when does incivility cross the line into professional misconduct worthy of sanction by a provincial or territorial law society. The Court held that, depending on the context, a lawyer's duty of resolute advocacy trumps the need for civil courtroom behavior. While the views of the majority of the Court are reasonable, the concurring decision by Justice Côté required greater scrutiny of a law society's decision to sanction courtroom behavior and would better protect judicial independence.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Shaping International Tax Law and Policy in Challenging Times, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3236304 (August 30, 2018)

This Article was prepared for a symposium on 'What's Law Got Do To With It? Examining the Role of Law in a Changing World.' The OECD and G20 Base Erosion and Profits (BEPS) project represents the most comprehensive global cooperative effort to date to inhibit aggressive international tax planning and offshore tax evasion — along with related revenue losses. This cooperation promotes agreement on the underlying tax rules that govern cross-border transactions and reduces tax as a barrier to international trade and investment, hence improving global welfare. It remains unclear, however, whether ongoing cooperative solutions outside of tax administration will curtail perceived problems in any significant sense. Moreover, global political trends, including anti-globalization, nationalism, and populism — along with the rise of countries historically left off the bargaining table — make progress through international cooperation even more elusive. As a result of these forces, governments ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: The Case for the Repeal of the Fifteenth Amendment in the Yale Law Journal, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=2957111 (August 20, 2018)

In June 1903, in the depths of the Jim Crow system, the Yale Law Journal published an article by famed New York corporate lawyer John R. Dos Passos (whose son, with the same name, later became a famous modernist novelist and socialist). The article, entitled “The Negro Question,” argued that many African American citizens in southern state were not yet ready for voting rights. The article defended the restriction of rights in southern states since the end of Reconstruction among African-Americans. Dos Passos’ article has received virtually no attention in recent years. It is important evidence of the intellectual credibility of ideas of segregation and second-class citizenship at the turn of the twentieth century. It reveals the breadth of the entrenched opposition to the ideas of racial equality. And it invites further examination of how law reviews in the early twentieth century supported Jim Crow segregation.  
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Professional Judgment in an Era of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3067711 (August 16, 2018)

There are two fundamental features of the information processing behind most efforts to substitute artificial intelligence, machine learning, and robotics for professionals in health and education: reductionism and functionalism. However, true professional judgment hinges on a way of knowing the world and relating to persons that is at odds with the mindset of substitutive automation. Instead of reductionism, an encompassing holism is a hallmark of professional practice — an ability to integrate facts and values, to respect the demands of the particular case and prerogatives of society, and to balance mission and margin in institutional decision-making. Any presently plausible vision of substituting artificial intelligence for education and health care professionals would be premised on patients and students accepting services as “medical care” or “education” that are often far inferior to what a skilled, reflective practitioner in either field could provide. The only way these ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Toward a Critical Theory of Corporate Wellness, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3010313 (August 6, 2018)

In the U.S., ‘employee wellness’ programs are increasingly attached to employer-provided health insurance. These programs attempt to nudge employees, sometimes quite forcefully, into healthy behaviors such as smoking cessation and exercise routines. Despite being widely promoted as saving on healthcare costs, numerous studies undermine this rationale. After documenting the programs’ failure to deliver a positive return on investment, we analyze them as instead providing an opportunity for employers to exercise increasing control over their employees. Based on human capital theory and neoliberal models of subjectivity that emphasize personal control and responsibility, these programs treat wellness as a lifestyle that employees must be cajoled into adopting, extending the workplace not just into the home but into the bodies of workers, and entrenching the view that one belongs to one’s workplace. At the same time, their selective endorsement of health programs (many scientifically ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Tech Platforms and the Knowledge Problem, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3197292 (June 20, 2018)

Jeffersonians call for a new era of antitrust enforcement to break up giant firms. These populist and localist critics of leading technology platforms, megabanks, and health care behemoths are decentralizers. They believe that, in a just society, power must be widely dispersed. They promote strong local authorities to counterbalance the centripetal accumulation of wealth and power in multinational firms. By contrast, Hamiltonians have promoted gigantism as inevitable or desirable, and argue that we simply need better rules to cabin abuses of corporate power. They argue that massive stores of data are critical to the future of artificial intelligence—and thus to the productive dynamism of the economy. They focus on improving the regulation of leading firms rather than on breaking them up. Jeffersonians and Hamiltonians express very different views on what an optimal economy looks like. In the long run, their visions are probably irreconcilable. In the short run, however, both ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: New Economic Analysis of Law: Beyond Technocracy and Market Design, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3193206 (June 11, 2018)

This is the introduction to a special issue of Critical Analysis of Law on New Economic Analysis of Law (guest edited by Frank Pasquale). The issue features illuminating syntheses of social science and law, asking pointed questions about the future of interdisciplinarity here. What would law and economics look like if macroeconomics were a concern of scholars now focused almost entirely on microeconomics? Do emerging online phenomena, such as algorithmic pricing and platform capitalism, promise to perfect economic theories of market equilibrium, or challenge their foundations? How did simplified economic models gain ideological power in policy circles, and how can they be improved or replaced? This issue highlights scholars whose work has made the legal academy more than an “importer” of ideas from other disciplines—and who have, instead, shown that rigorous legal analysis is fundamental to understanding economic affairs. The essays in this issue should help ensure that ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, Update: A Rule of Persons, Not Machines: The Limits of Legal Automation, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3135549 (June 6, 2018)

For many legal futurists, attorneys’ work is a prime target for automation. They view the legal practice of most businesses as algorithmic: data (such as facts) are transformed into outputs (agreements or litigation stances) via application of set rules. These technophiles promote substituting computer code for contracts and descriptions of facts now written by humans. They point to early successes in legal automation as proof of concept. TurboTax has helped millions of Americans file taxes, and algorithms have taken over certain aspects of stock trading. Corporate efforts to “formalize legal code” may bring new efficiencies in areas of practice characterized by both legal and factual clarity. However, legal automation can also elide or exclude important human values, necessary improvisations, and irreducibly deliberative governance. Due process, appeals, and narratively intelligible explanation from persons, for persons, depend on forms of communication that are not reducible to ...
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%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Exploring Precision FDA, an Online Platform for Crowdsourcing Genomics, http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3017395 (April 17, 2018)

Precision medicine is here, with rapid advancements in the technologies, tools, and life-saving products entering the market for the treatment of serious and life-threatening disease. In May 2017, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first cancer treatment for solid tumors based on a genetic biomarker rather than the tissue of origin. One month later, the agency approved a companion diagnostic panel that utilizes next generation sequencing (NGS) to simultaneously screen a genetic sample for 23 cancer genes, three of which have FDA-approved therapies for non-small cell lung cancer. Together, these developments represent a “seismic shift” in the field of oncology and illustrate the tremendous promise for medicine facilitated by NGS. However, innovative NGS research and data-sharing models depart in significant ways from traditional research and development relationships in the life sciences, potentially raising a host of novel legal questions. NGS is ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Limiting Lawyer Liberty: How the Statement of Principles Coerces Speech, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3141561 (April 1, 2018)

In December 2016, the benchers (‘governors’) of the Law Society of Ontario adopted a series of Equity and Diversity Initiatives (“EDIs”), including requiring a mandatory Statement of Principles (the “SOP”). Under the new rule, the “Law Society will require every licensee [that is, lawyer or paralegal] to adopt and to abide by a statement of principles acknowledging their obligation to promote equality, diversity, and inclusion generally, and in their behavior towards colleagues, employees, clients and the public.” Lawyers and paralegals who do not follow this approach will first receive warnings, followed by sanctions, including the potential loss of license to practice. While I agree with the values of equality, diversity and social inclusion, in this Article I claim that the SOP coerces a licensee’s speech, thought and conscience in harmful ways and makes it harder for lawyers to fulfill their duty of loyalty to their client. Accordingly, the SOP seems to infringe or violate, among ...
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: 21st Century Citizen Pharma: The FDA & Patient-Focused Product Development, http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3131857 (March 7, 2018)

Perpetual debate regarding the delicate balance between access and innovation and the protection of the public health and safety dominate discussions of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Established chiefly as a command and control federal administrative agency, iterative changes in legislation have shaped the FDA’s activity in drug, biologic, and medical device regulation over the course of the last one-hundred plus years. The most recent fundamental reframing of the agency’s authority and directive presented itself in the 21st Century Cures Act, reflecting an important role for patient perspectives in the regulatory process. This Article explores recent developments in patient-focused product development efforts at the FDA and offers modest insights on the increasing role of patients, and patient advocacy groups, in agency decision-making. The Article terms this era “21st century citizen pharma.”
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, New: Taxing Global Digital Commerce in a Post-BEPS World, https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3130218 (March 6, 2018)

This chapter evaluates the recent OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) initiative directed at global digital income, and concludes that tax planning will not be inhibited by any significant extent. Tax planners and academics nevertheless should take into account prospective reforms surrounding permanent establishments, hybrid entities, treaty shopping, transfer pricing and controlled foreign corporations, which may challenge certain practices.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Case Note: Sandoz v. Amgen, http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3013800 (March 1, 2018)

On June 12, 2017, the Supreme Court decided the highly anticipated first case involving the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (BPCIA). The Supreme Court addressed two related questions: (1) whether the statutory language instructing a biosimilar applicant to provide its application and manufacturing information to the reference biologic sponsor after FDA acceptance of the application is enforceable by injunction; and (2) whether the biosimilar applicant must give notice of intended commercial marketing to the reference biologic sponsor only after obtaining an approved license from the FDA. Upholding the decision of the Federal Circuit on the first question (albeit using different reasoning) and reversing the Federal Circuit on the second question, the Court also introduced some uncertainty for the future. This short article discusses some key points following the decision.
%SOURCENAMEESCAPED%, REVISION: Regulatory Silence at the FDA: Impact on Access and Innovation, http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3020383 (March 1, 2018)

Congress creates federal administrative agencies, crafts their fundamental organizational structure and mission, and bestows upon them authority to perform tasks such as rulemaking, adjudication, investigation, and licensing. Often, Congress expressly directs an agency to perform a specific task within a timeframe subject to carefully enumerated factors or considerations. Many times, however, an agency is left with much discretion, either express or implied, to determine appropriate action within the scope of their authority, the statutory language, the Constitution, and procedural laws. It is in these instances that the Supreme Court’s deference precedent has flourished, setting forth when a court ought to defer to an agency’s reasonable interpretation of the statute that it administers when the statute itself is silent or ambiguous. As muddled and disputed as this deference case law is, it probes an important area of agency behavior: when an agency affirmatively acts to ...


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